B1 Revision Cards

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  • Created by: Franke
  • Created on: 04-06-13 18:14
Blood Pressure Is Measured in....
Millimeters Of Mercury (mmHg)
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What Is Systolic Pressure?
The Higher Measurement when the heart beats pushing blood through the arteries
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What is Diastolic Pressure?
The Lower Measurement when the heart rests between beats
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What Can High And Low Blood Pressure Lead To?
HIGH; Blood vessels may burst causing damage to brain (stroke) and kidney damage. Low; Dizziness and fainting, the blood supply to brain is reduced and there is poor circulation in fingers and toes.
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What is the result of a increased metabolic rate?
Chemical reactions in cells work faster
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What are Carbohydrates made up of?
Simple sugars like glucose
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What are fats made up of?
Fatty acids and glycerol
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What are proteins made up of?
Amino Acids
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Where are carbohydrates stored?
In the liver as Glycogen
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Where are fats stored?
Under the skin as adipose tissue
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Where are proteins stored?
They can't be stored, they must be converted into other Amino Acids
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What is Fitness and Health?
Fitness; The ability to do physical activity and Health; Being disease free
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Effects of Smoking?
Increases heart rate and blood pressure
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Why don't smokers have as much oxygen in there blood as non-smokers?
Because Carbon Monoxide combines with Haemoglobin, preventing it combining with oxygen
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What is Heart disease caused by?
Restricted blood flow to heart muscle
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what does a build up in plaque cause?
Blood clots and thrombosis. It can also block the artery
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How do you calculate EAR?
EAR in grams = 0.6 x body mass in kilograms
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What is Kwashiorkor?
A condition in developing countries which effects primarily children with too little protein in their diet
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What are first class and second class proteins?
First class; Meat and Fish. Second class; plant proteins
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How do you calculate BMI?
BMI=(Mass in Kilograms)/((height in m^2)) (Mass in kilograms divided by height in meters squared)
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What is a vector?
A carrier of a disease, they are not affected by the disease. Example is a mosquito
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What is a parasite?
A organism which feeds off of another living organism. An example is Plasmodium
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What is a host?
Where a Parasite lives. An example is humans
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What is a pathogen?
A disease causing organism which produces toxins
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What is an antibody?
The protection made by the body to fight pathogens. There is a different antibody for each type of pathogen, white blood cells produce antibodies.
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What is an antigen?
Antigens live on the surface of pathogens and these are what antibodies lock onto
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Immunisation steps?
Step 1: Inject harmless pathogen carrying antigens. Step 2; Antigen triggers a response by white blood cells and they produce antibodies. Step 3; Memory cells remain in the body providing long lasting immunity from that disease.
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What do antibiotics fight and what do they do to the pathogens?
Antibiotics fight Bacteria and Fungi, they kill pathogens
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What do Anti-viral drugs fight and what do they do to the pathogens?
Anti viral drugs fight viruses but only slow down the pathogen
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What could happen if you use antibiotics too frequently?
The bacteria becomes resistant and these resistant forms become more common than non resistant forms
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In the eye, what are light rays refracted by?
Cornea and Lens
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What is binocular vision?
Your eyes can judge distance by comparing images from both eyes, the more different the images, the closer the object
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How does the eye focus on distant objects?
The ciliary muscles relax and the suspensory ligaments tighten so lens has less rounded shape
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How does the eye focus on near objects?
Ciliary muscles contract and suspensory ligaments slacken so the lens has a more rounded shape
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What are nerve cells also called?
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Where do nerve impulses travel?
down the Axon
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Recite the reflex action
stimulus- receptor- sensory neurone- central nervous system- motor neurone- effector- response
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Recite the spinal reflex
Receptor- sensory neurones- relay neurone- motor neurone- effector
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What are the neurone's adaptions?
Being long, having branched ends called dendrites and having an insulator sheath
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What is the gap between neurones called?
a synapse
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Impulse steps?
Step 1; the impulse arrives which triggers the release of a transmittter substance. Step 2; this diffuses across the synapse. Step 3; transmitter substance binds with receptor molecules in membrane of next neurone. Step 4; Impulse continues.
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What does a stimulant do to the neurotransmitter substances?
Makes more go along the synapses
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What does cigarette smoke cause on the epithelial lining?
The cilia to stop moving on the epithelial lining of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles
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What is Smokers cough?
Where smokers get dust and particulates irritating the epithelial lining
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What does drinking alcohol increase?
Reaction time and risk of accidents
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The liver is damaged when....
It has to break down toxic chemicals like alcohol, this is called cirrhosis of the liver
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What is Homeostasis
Homeostasis is keeping a constant internal temperature.
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What do your Automatic Control Systems do?
Keep temperature, water and carbon dioxide levels steady
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What is the bodies optimum temperature?
37 degrees celsius
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Blood temperature is monitored by...
The hypothalamus gland in the brain
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Reaction to extreme temperatures controlled by...
Nervous and hormonal systems
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What is vasoconstriction?
The narrowing of small blood cells in the skin which causes less blood flow and less heat transfer
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What is vasodilation?
The widening of small blood cells in the skin which causes more blood flow and more heat transfer
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What is Insulin?
A hormone which controls blood sugar levels, it converts glucose into glycogen
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What is Phototropism?
Plant's growth response to light
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What is Geotropism?
Plant's growth response to gravity
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Where are auxins made and How do auxins effect plants?
Auxins are made in the tip and root of plants, They are involved in photo and geo tropism and more of them can be found in the shady side of a plant. They make plants grow, so that is why plants curve towards the light.
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When are recessive alleles present?
When the dominant allele is absent
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How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs
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Sex chromosomes determine...
The sex of a child, Females have ** and Males have XY
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Which sex chromosomes do the egg and sperm carry?
Egg carries X chromosome and Sperm can carry X or Y
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What does Homozygous mean?
Identical alleles
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What does Heterozygous mean?
Different alleles
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Inherited disorders are....
Faulty alleles most of which are recessive.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What Is Systolic Pressure?


The Higher Measurement when the heart beats pushing blood through the arteries

Card 3


What is Diastolic Pressure?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What Can High And Low Blood Pressure Lead To?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the result of a increased metabolic rate?


Preview of the front of card 5
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