B1 Keeping Healthy

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 04-06-14 18:16
What are the bodies defence mechanisms?
1. The skin 2. Mucus 3. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach 4. The immune system
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What cells play a major part in the immune system?
1. White Blood cells.
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What are the three things white blood cells do in the immune system?
1. They ingest pathogens (digest and destroy) 2. They produce antibodies who help destroy particular pathogens 3. They produce antitoxins which counteract the toxins pathogens produce.
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What do carbohydrate, fat and protein used for in the body?
Release energy and to build cells.
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What happens to a person if their diet is unbalanced?
They become malnourished.
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Define metabolic rate
The rate at which the reactions in your body take place, particularly cellular respiration.
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How does exercise effect the metabolic rate?
Exercise increases the metabolic rate which means chemical reactions in the body work faster
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What other factors affect your metabolic rate?
1. the proportion of fat to muscle 2. Your inherited factors.
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What happens when the energy you take in exceeds the energy you use
This can lead you to becoming obese or overweight.
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What can long-term obesity lead to?
Type 2 diabetes which is when the blood sugar is very high.
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How can the changes of getting type 2 diabetes be reduced?
By eating less carbohydrates and increasing the amount of exercise.
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Who do starving people find it difficult to walk about?
Because they lack minerals or vitamins which makes them more prone to having deficiency diseases.
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What are good cholesterol's called?
High-density lipoproteins
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What is the function of good cholesterol?
1. For cell membranes 2. Make vital substances 3. Carry excess cholesterol back to the liver 4. Stop fat building up in the arteries.
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What are bad cholesterol called?
low-density lipoproteins
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What is the problems with 'bad' cholesterol?
1. High levels of these can be inherited which can lead to heart disease 2. They can build up in the arteries which causes heart disease
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Apart from inheriting bad cholesterol, how else can levels of this be increased?
Foods rich in saturated fat increase the levels of choloesterol
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How can people change their lifestyle to help lower heir blood cholesterol level?
By exercising regularly because this increases the metabolic rate, which decreases high cholesterol levels
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What is excess energy stored as in the body?
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What are pathogens?
Infectious diseases which are tiny microorganisms-
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How can pathogens make us ill?
When bacteria or viruses enter the body the reproduce rapidly and produce toxins.
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How do viruses act to make us ill?
They are much smaller than bacteria and reproduce inside the cells. The damage to the cells is what makes you ill/
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What is the significance of Semmelweiss?
Before bacteria and viruses were discovered. Doctror Semmelweiss realised that infections can be transferred from person to person in a hospital. He told his staff to wash their houses.
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What are antibiotics?
Cure bacterial diseases by killing infective bacteria in the body.
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Give an example of an antibiotic
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What are the risks of treatment that fight against viruses?
Viruses are difficult to tackle because they reproduce inside the body cells, so treatment could damage the body cells.
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What can't antibiotics destroy?
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What can pain relievers do and what can't they do?
They can relieve the symptoms of a disease but they do not kill the pathogen.
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What can overcome the viral pathogens in the body?
The immune system
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What are the uses of pure cultures of non-pathogenic bacteria?
They can can be used in laboratories to find the effect of antibiotics in the bacteria.
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Why must all equipment be sterilised when dealing with microorganisms in laboratories?
This ensures that unwanted microorganisms do not infect the culture.
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How do culture microorganisms in a laboratory?
1. Give them a culture medium (agar jelly) which contains carbohydrates as a source of energy and other minerals and chemicals 2. provide warmth and oxygen 3. Keep incubated at 25°c in school and 35° in laboratories.
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Why do industrial laboratories use 35°c instead of 25°C as in schools?
The bacteria will grow at a faster rate
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How do you keep a culture pure?
1. Kill all the bacteria in the equipment - pass metal loops through a flame; boil solutions and agar 2. Prevent microorganisms from the air getting into the equipment.
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What are muatations?
Some pathogens (especially viruses) can change to a new form called mutations
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Why do some pathogens spread rapidly?
Very few people are immune to these mutated pathogens so disease spreads very quickly.
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What is an epidemic?
When a disease spreads within a country
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What is a pandemic?
When a disease spreads across countries.
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What is the MRSA?
Known as the 'super bug' , it is a bacterium whih has evolved through natural selection to be resistant to common antibiotics.
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What do mutated pathogens produce so that they are resistant to antibiotics?
They produce new strains which are resistant to antibiotics
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How does natural selection cause resistant population os bacteria to develop?
1. Antibodies kill individual pathogens of the non-resistant strain 2. Resistant bacteria survive and reproduce 3. A whole population of a resistant strain develops.
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What are vaccines?
Vaccines can protect against bacterial and viral pathogens, and contain dead or inactive pathogens.
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What happens when a vaccination occurs?
1.Dead or inactive pathogens are injected into the body 2. Antigens in the vaccine stimulate production of antibodies 3. Antibodies destroy antigens 4. You are immune
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How is a person immune after a vaccination?
It prevents further infection because the body responds quickly by making more antibodies. The antibody recognises the antigen of the pathogen.
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What does the MMR vaccine prevent?
measles, mumps and rubella
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of vaccinations?
Dis: Can cause mild and serious side effects Adv: Protects society from diseases which can cause death or deficiency in the body.
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Why is it necessary to develop new medicines?
1. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to development of new strains of bacteria 2. Doctors do not prescribe antibiotics for minor infections
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Why shouldn't antibiotics be used for mild infections?
In order to slow down the rate of the development of resistant strains
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What cells play a major part in the immune system?


1. White Blood cells.

Card 3


What are the three things white blood cells do in the immune system?


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Card 4


What do carbohydrate, fat and protein used for in the body?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What happens to a person if their diet is unbalanced?


Preview of the front of card 5
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