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What are fossil fuels?
Fuel formed naturally over millions of years
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What is a non renewable fuel?
A fuel that can't be re used, for example fossil fuels
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Where is crude oil found?
In the earths crust
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Where do the short chains go in the fractioning column?
Top of the fractioning column because they are shorter and have weak bonds
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What does fractioning do?
Crude oil being separated into more useful fractions
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What happens at the bottom of the fractioning column?
The long chains leaves the column
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How can hydrocarbon molecules be described as?
Alkanes or alkenes
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What does cracking do?
The large Alkanes molecules get broken down into more useful chains
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What conditions does cracking need?
Catalyst, high temp and high pressure
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What's in the hydrocarbon?
Strong covalent bonds, and weak intermolecular forces
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The complete combustion is...?
Fuels react with oxygen releasing useful heat energy
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What is the symbol equation for combustion?
CH4 + 2O2 --> CO2 + 2H2O
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What does incomplete combustion do?
Burns fuel without oxygen
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What is the % of elements in the air today?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen 1% other gasses
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How are the levels of gas in the atmosphere maintained by?
Respiration, combustion, photosynthesis
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What does respiration and combustion do?
Decrease oxygen levels
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What does photosynthesis do?
Reduce carbon dioxide and gain oxygen
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What can soulful dioxide do to pollute the air?
Acid rain, erodes stonework
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What does burning fossil fuels and deforestation do to the atmosphere?
Burning fossils fuels- increases amount of CO2 in atmosphere. Deforestation- amount of photosynthes reduced
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How can carbon monoxide be changed into a carbon dioxides?
catalic converter
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What do hydrocarbons include?
Hydrogen and carbon
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What bond does Alkanes have?
Single covalent bond
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Alkenes are...
Hydrocarbons with double carbon covalent bond
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How can your set to for alkenes?
Bromine water
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What is polymerisation?
Cracking small molecules to be used as monomers
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What properties does nylon have?
Lightweight, tough, waterproof, blocks UV light
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What is goretex?
Breathable fabric made from nylon, keeps water out allows sweat out
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When a protein changes shape by cooking what does it mean?
Denaturing
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What foods have lots of protein?
Eggs and meat
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What does baking powder contain?
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
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What happens when sodium hydrogen carbonate is heatedly?
It decomposes
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What do food additives do?
Improve the quality of the food
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What do the four food additives do?
Anti-oxidants - stop food reacting with oxygen. Food colours - improve apprearence. Flavours enhacer - bring out flavour. Emulsifiers - mix oil with water
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What are the properties of perfume?
Evaporated easily, not toxic, not irritate the, not dissolve
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of testing perfumes?
Prevent humans a being harmed ----- cruel to animals, animals don't have sames body chemistry
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What are components to paint?
Pigment - gives colour. Binding mediums- oil that sticks paint to surface. Solvent - makes easier to coat a surface
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What can paint be used for?
To protect and decorate
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What size must the particles in a colloid be? Why?
Small because they can stays scattered through the mixtures
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What are thermochromic pigments?
Change colour when heated or cooled
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Where can thermochromic pigments be used?
Coat kettles, mood rings, toys or foods to protect baby From too hot food, water etc
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What are phospherent pigments used for?
They glow in the dark.
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How does phospherent pigments work?
Absorb light then release it when dark
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What were the first to glow in the dark paints made from?
Radioactive materials as pigments used for watche
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a non renewable fuel?

Back

A fuel that can't be re used, for example fossil fuels

Card 3

Front

Where is crude oil found?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do the short chains go in the fractioning column?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does fractioning do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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