What is systolic blood pressure?
The higher measurement when then heart beats
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Whats diastolic blood pressure?
The rest between beats
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What factories effect blood pressure?
Smoking, overweight, excessive alcohol intake and stress
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What is blood pressure measured in?
mmHg (millimetres of mercury)
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What is fitness?
Ability to do physical activity
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What is health?
Being free from disease
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How to measure fitness?
Strength, stamina, cardiovascular efficency, flexibility, speed
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What has nicotine and carbon monoxide in it?
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What does smoking do to the heart?
Raises heart rate as carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen carrying red bloody cell, it mixes with haemoglobin therefor stopping oxygen doing so
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Causes of heart attacks?
Fat in the arteries, smoking, high blood pressured,high levels of salts and saturated fats
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What do the three main nutrients in our diet do?
Carbohydrates: high energy source (made from simple sugars) fats: high energy source ( made from fatty acids and glycerol) protein: growth and repair (made from amino acids)
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What does a balanced diet involved?
Minerals, vitamins, fibre, water, protein, fat and carbohydrates
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How do you measure your BMI?
Mass in kg / (height in m) squared
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What is overweight on the BMI scale?
25 and over
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What can protein efficency be caused by?
Over population, limited investment in farming
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How do you calculate average daily requirement (EAR) of protein?
0.6 x body mass in kg
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What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that cause disease
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Which pathogen goes with which disease?
Bacteria - cholera. Viruses - influza (flu). Fungi - athletes foot. Protozoa - malaria
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What are parasites?
Organisms that live in a host
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What's an example of a parasites?
A tape worm
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What is maleria caused by?
A protozoan (single celled organism)
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How can the pathogen be prevented from spreading?
Avoiding contact with the vector
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What diseases are caused by pathogens but are not infectious?
Scurby - vitamin C deficiency. Anemia - iron deficiency
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How can cancer be prevented by life style?
Smoking, using sunscreen, eat more fruit and veg
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What's a malignant tumour?
Grow quickly and spread throughout the body
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What is the skins job?
Protect body from physical damage and dehydration
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Why do we need blood clotting?
Close the wound quickly
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What does mucus do
Nasal hair keeps out dust, mucus traps dust and microbes
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What is the use of stomach acid?
Kills harmful micro organisms
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What do white blood cells do?
Engulf pathogens to stop them, produce antibodies, produce anti- toxins to neutralise toxins released by pathogens
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What is active immunity?
When you make your own antibodies as your white blood cells remember the pathogen if you get infected again
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What is passive immunity?
Being treated for the infection
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What is a double blind trial?
Doctors and patients don't know who has the real drug
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What is a placebo?
The fake drug in a double blind trial
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How can you be immunised against a pathogens?
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What is a vaccination?
Putting small amounts of inactive forms of the pathogen
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what is MRSA?
Becoming resisnt to anitbiotics
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Where are receptors found and what do they do?
Eyes=lights Ears=sound Tongue=chemicals in food Nose=chemicals in air Skin=touch, pressure, pain and temperature
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What do most cells include?
Nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane
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What is rhen Central nervous system involves?
Brain and spinal cord
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What does the iris do?
Contol the amount of light
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Wha ones the optic nerve do?
Carries impluses Fromm the eye from the eye to the brain
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What sights do humans have?
Binocular vision
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What's is the difference between short and long sight?
Longs sifhr can see far away clearly. Short sight can see close up close clearly
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How do people get colour blindness?
It's inherited
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What are synapses?
When's 2 nurones meet, then small gap between is called am synapse
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What's an example of a reflex action?
Knee jerk
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What lens is needed to correct short sight?
Concave lens
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What lens is needed to correct long sight?
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What is the definition of drugs?
a chemical that alters the way your body works
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What drug is a depressant?
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What drug is a hallucinogen?
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What drug is a painkiller?
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What drug is a performance enhancer?
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What drug is a stimulant?
Nicotine, Caffine
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what do stimulants and depressants affect?
the synapses between the neurones in the nervous system. Stimulants cause more neurotransmitter molecules to diffuse between the synapses whereas the depressants stop the next neurone sending impulses.
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what is nicotine and what does it do?
nicotine is a drug in a cigarette which makes it addictive, it reaches the brain within 20 secs and starts the stimulation process
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give an example of a carcinogenic in a cigarette
tar and tobacco
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give the long and short term effects of alcohol in out system
short term-sleepiness, impaired judgement, loss of balance, blurred vision, drowsiness. long term-damage to the liver and brain
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what is the best temperature our enzymes work best and how do we maintain this?
37 degrees centigrade, and controlled by shivering (when cold). sweating (when too hot)
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what can low and high temperatures cause?
low temp-cause hypothermia high temp-dehydration, heat stroke or even death
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how do hormones get transported around the body?
through the blood
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what happens when glucose levels are either too high or low
too high-insulin goes into blood stream, too low-insulin not in the blood stream
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whats the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
type 1-devlops during childhood, stops making insulin, have to inject insulin for rest of life, type 2-due to poor diet or old age, treated by exercise or chnge in diet
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describe positive and negative tropisms
positive is when the plan grows towards the light, negatuve is when it grows away from the light
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what is phototropism and geotrism
phototropism is when the stimulus is light, geotropism is when the stimulus is gravity
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where are auxins made and what do they do?
they are normally made in the top of the plant and are there to change the rate of elongation in plant cells and control how long they come
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what are examples of inherited characteristics?
shape of earlobes, eye colour and nose shape
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where are chromosomes found?
in the cells nucleus
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what are the sex chromosomes for woman and men?
woman-XX mn-XY
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what are gametes and where can you find them in men and woman
they are sex cells and you can find them in sperm in men and eggs in woman
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what are alleles and what are dominant and recessive alleles
they are characteristics. recessive means they only develop if they are in a matching pair, and dominant is when it develops if only one is present in the chromosome
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Whats diastolic blood pressure?


The rest between beats

Card 3


What factories effect blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is blood pressure measured in?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is fitness?


Preview of the front of card 5
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