B1

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B1/1.What is health?
Presence or absence of disease
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B1/2.What is fitness?
The ability to do physical activity
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B1/3.How can you measure fitness?
Speed, Stamina, Strength, Flexibility, Agility, Cardiovascular efficiency
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B1/4.What things can increase the chance of getting heart disease?
Smoking, High blood pressure, Eating too much salt, Eating too much saturated fat
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B1/4.Describe blood pressure
Each the heart beats its muscles contract and this pushes the blood out into the arteries at the correct pressure so it reaches all parts of the body
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B1/5.What is systolic pressure?
The pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts
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B1/6.What is diastolic pressure?
The pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes
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B1/7.What can increase high blood pressure?
Smoking, consuming excessive salt, saturated fat,stress, being ovewrweight,too much alocohl
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B1/8.How does smoking increase you blood pressure?
Carbon monoxide combines with the hemoglobin in red blood cells and prevents them from carrying as much as oxygen as possible. Heart beats faster to compensate thus putting a strain on the heart
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B1/9.How does sat fat increase blood pressure?
Your liver makes cholesterol from saturated fat. Cholesterol is carried in the blood and may be deposited in the artery walls. These deposits narrow the arteries and restrict blood flow. The blood pressure increases to force blood through the narrow
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B1/10.What can high blood pressure and low blood pressure lead to?
High.bp.=stroke,heart attack ///low bp=dizziness, fainting
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B1/11.What is a balanced diet?
A diet that contains the right amount of different foods and the right amount of energy to keep you healthy
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B1/12.What are some of the factors that effect a balanced diet for different people
Age, religion, gender, medical reasons, personal choice, how active you are
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B1/13.What is EAR and how do you measure it?
Calculates how much protein someone should eat everyday. -0.6XBody mass in KG
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B1/14.How do you measure BMI?
weight/height in m2
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B1/15.What is infectious diseases caused by?
Micro-organisms [parasites]//Pathogens
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B1/16.How can you prevent cancer?
Sunbathe little. Don't some, Avoid dirnking too much alcohol, Eat lots of vegetables and fruits, Regularly exercise
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B1/17.What is a benign tumour?
Tumour that does not spread to other parts of the body
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B1/18.What re anti-biotics?
Are chemicals produced by some fungi and bacteria to prevent or kill the growth of other bacteria and fungi
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B1/19.Why do antibiotics have to be used carefully?
Resistant strains of bacteria may develop like MRSA. MRSA lives on skin harmlessly but if it gets into a wound it causes a bad infection. It is resistant to may antibiotics so is hard to deal with
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B1/20.What are the different barriers that your body has to prevent the entering of pathogens?
Skin[barrier], Acid[kills pathogens],Mucus[traps pathogens],Bloodclot[prevents entry of pathogens]
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B1/21.Name the two different types of white blood cells and their jobs
Phagocytes-ingests pathogens// Lymphocytes-produces antibodies or antitoxins
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B1/22.Describe how antibodies lock onto pathogens
1.each type of pathogen has a specific antigen with a specific shape on its surface 2.each type of antibody which also has a particular shape and can lock onto a particular antigen 3.immune system makes the right antibody to lock onto the antigen of
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B1/23.What is the difference between active and passive immunity?
Active-your body makes its own antibodies Passive-you do not
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B1/24.What do the eyes contain and what does this do?
Eyes contain receptors that detect light and these receptors change light into electrical impulses. The impulses pass along the optic nerve to the brain
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B1/25.What is binocular vision?
Both eyes can focus on the same thing thus distance can be judged ver well but narrow field of view
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B1/26.What is accomodation?
When the lens changes shape to focus on distant or near objects
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B1/27.Describe short-sighted sight
Light rays meet in front of the retina unlike long where the light doesn't meet on the retina..
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B1/28.Name what type of lens is needed to fix short-sighted sight
Concave
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B1/29.What is a stimuli?
change inthe surrounding
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B1/30.What does the CNS consist of?
Brain and spinal cord
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B1/31.What are receptor cells?
Special cells that are adapted to detect a stimuli
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B1/32.How are reflex actions like?
fast, automatic and protective
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B1/33.Name the reflex pathway
stimuli-receptor-sensory neurone-relay neurone-motor neurone-effector-response
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B1/34.How are neurones adapted to their job?
Insulating sheath-prevents impulses from leaking wayand have branches endings so they can communicate with many other neurones
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B1/35.What are drugs?
Drugs are chemicals that change the way your body and braing works
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B1/36.What happens when you stop taking drugs?
vomit, diarrhoea, withdrawl symptom, craving, hallucinations, nausea
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B1/37.What is blind trial and a double blind trial?
nurses and doctors know which group gets the placebo and the new drug./double = the doctors and nurses do not know to prevent experimental bias
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B1/38.Name the 5 types of drugs
Stimulants, Depressants, Performance enhancers, painkillers,hallucinogens
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B1/39.How do depressants work?
they reduce activity at synapses by binding to the receptor molecules on the next neurone and block transmission of the nerve impulses.
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B1/40.Name some short-term effects of alcohols
Impaired speech,Blurred vision,drowsiness,increased reaction time
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B1/41.Name some long effects of alcohol
Brain damage including memory and depression,Weight gain,Increased risk of diabetes and heart disease,Cirrhosis of the liver
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B1/42.What is homeostasis?
To maintain a constant internal environment
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B1/43.What happens if your body temperature reaches above 40C?
heat stroke,dehydration
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B1/44.What happens if your body temperature reaches under 35?
Hypothermia
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B1/45.When you are cold, how does your body try to regain heat?
Respiration-releases some energy as heat,Vasoconstriction-less blood flows near the surface of the skin,Exercise generates heat because muslces need to respire to contract,wearing more clothes
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B1/46.When you are cold, how does your body release heat?
Vasodilation-more blood flows near the surface of the skin giving off heat to the environment,More sweating-the water in the sweat evaporates taking heat from the skin and transferring it to the environment, wearing less clothes
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B1/47.What is negative feedback?
A mechanism that keeps things at a steady level.
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B1/48.How does negative feedback work?
1.the level changes away from steady 2.sense organs detect the change 3.they send info to a control centre in the brain 4.this sends info back to particular body structures 5.that sets processes in motion that redress the balance and bring the level
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B1/49.How does the body get rid of excess glucose in the blood?
If there is too much glucose in the blood: the cells in the pancreas secretes insulin which travels in the blood to the live, which makes the liver take up extra glucose and changes it to another carbohydrate called glycogen
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B1/50.Hows does auxin make the shoot bend?
Auxin is made in the shoot tip and is unevenly distributed when the shoot is exposed to light from one side. This auxin moves down the stem and causes cells on the side of the shoot furthest from the light to elongate more than those nearest to the l
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B1/51. Name comercial uses for auxin
weedkillers,rooting powder, fruit ripening, control of dormancy
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B1/52.State three human characteristics that is determined by the environment
scars,infections,learning a new language
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B1/53.State three human characteristics that is determined by genese
eye colour, hair colour, earlobe shape
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B1/54.State three human characteristics that is determined by both genes and environment
intelligence, sporting ability,skills
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B1/55.What are genes?
Genes are particular regions of chromosomes, the thread-like structure inside the nucleus of each cell.Each gene is a DNA long and each gene controls the development of a particular characteristic
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B1/56.How do mutations happen?
Spontaneously, ultraviolet radiation
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B1/57.What is an allele?
A version of a gene
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B1/58.What is dominant?
describes a characteristic that is expressed even if only one allele for it is present
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B1/59.What is recessive?
describes a characteristic that is only expressed when two alleles are present for it
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B1/60.Give examples of inhertied disorders
cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, red-green colour blindness
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Card 2

Front

B1/2.What is fitness?

Back

The ability to do physical activity

Card 3

Front

B1/3.How can you measure fitness?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

B1/4.What things can increase the chance of getting heart disease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

B1/4.Describe blood pressure

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Preview of the front of card 5
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