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What are carbohydrates used for?
Slow release energy.
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What are fats used for?
To keep warm and release energy.
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What are proteins used for?
Growth and cell repair/replacement.
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What is meant by metabolic rate?
The rate at which chemical reactions occur in your body.
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Give an example of when someone would need a higher metabolic rate.
someone with a higher proportion of muscle to fat because muscle requires more energy than fatty tissue.
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Why do physically big people have higher metabolic rates?
More energy is required by your body because you have more cells.
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Why do men usually have a higher metabolic rate?
Men are usually slightly bigger with a larger proportion of muscle.
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What happens to your metabolic rate if you start exercising?
It will increase and stay increased for a short while after too.
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What is obesity?
When someone is 20% or more over the recommended body mass.
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Name 4 things that can make someone obese.
too much carbohydrates or fats (bad diet), over eating, not enough exercise and hormonal problems
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List three effects of obesity.
Type 2 diabetes, arthritis and increased blood cholesterol levels which can lead to heart disease,
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Give three effects of not getting enough food.
slow growth, fatigue and poor resistance to infections
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What effects does exercise have on your body?
Decrease storage of fat, builds up muscles and boosts your metabolic rate.
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Give one effects other than food and exercise that cause obesity?
Inherited factors e.g. inherited metabolic rate.
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What two ways can you lose weight?
Take in less energy and do more exercise.
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What is a pathogen?
A micro-organism that causes disease.
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Give two ways a bacteria can cause disease.
Damaging your body cells and producing toxins.
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which is bigger, a bacteria or a virus?
A bacteria
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How do viruses replicate them selves?
Invade your cells by injecting their genetic info, use your cells machinery to produce copies of them and then the cell bursts releasing new viruses (cell bursting makes you ill).
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Give four things your body does before the immune system to prevent microbes getting in.
Skin, mucus and hair in repository tract and platelets to clot blod
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Name three things your white blood cells do once they have seen a foreign antigen.
Consume them, produce antibodies and produce antitoxins.
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How do vaccines work?
Dead or inactive strand is injected, body detects antigens and white blood cells attack even though its harmless, when a proper strand enters white blood cells will be produced rapidly to kill it off.
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Give two advantages of vaccines.
Control lots of common infectious diseases and can prevent epidemics because less there are less people to pass on the disease.
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give two disadvantages of vaccines.
Do not always work and can have a bad reaction to the vaccine,
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Give two examples of medicine that just relieves the symptoms.
pain killers and cold remedies.
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What do antibiotics do?
They kill or prevent the growth of bacteria without damaging your cells.
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Why is it difficult to produce drugs that kill viruses?
viruses use your cells to reproduce so its hard to produce a drug that kills the virus and not you cell.
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How do you investigate antibiotics in a lab?
Staralise the equipment, put agar jelly in a perti dish, use a wire loop to put on the bacteria, paper discs are soaked in different antibiotics and placed on the jelly, resistant bacteria will continue to grow
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Explain the work of Semmelwies.
noticed huge numbers of death after child birth, asked doctors to put antiseptic solution on their hands and this cut the death rate, he couldn't prove anything as bacteria wasn't discovered.
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What is antibiotic resitance?
Bacteria have mutated and evolved because antibiotics are over used.
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Why are anti biotic resistant strands a problem?
People who get infected by one cant get rid of them easily.
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Give an example of a anti biotic resistant bacteria.
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How has an overuse of anti biotic made antibiotic resistant bacteria a bigger problem?
It is making more strands of bacteria resistant so you're more likely to get infected with one.
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What is a stimulus?
A change in your environment which you may need to react to.
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Name the 5 sense organs.
Eyes, ears, tongue, nose and skin
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Name the receptors.
Light, sound, taste, smell, pressure, temp ,pain
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What is the central nervous system?
Information from the sense organs is taken here, it is where reflexes and actions are coordinated and it consists of the spinal cord and brain.
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Explain the reflex arc.
Receptor detects stimulus, impulse travels along the sensroy neurone, then along the relay neurone, then alone the motor neurone to the effector (muscle).
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What is a synapse?
The connection between two neurones where a chemical diffuses through to set off a new signal.
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What is a reflex?
A automatic response to a certain stimuli e.g. pupil getting smaller.
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What is a hormone?
A chemical messenger sent in the blood to target cells.
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Give two examples of a gland.
Pituitary gland and ovaries.
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What are the differences between nerves and hormones?
hormones are slow action, hormones act for a long time and hormones act in a general where nerves are for particular places.
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Describe the main steps in the menstrual cycle.
Uterus lining breaks down and bleeding starts, lining builds back up from day 4-14, day 14 is when an egg is released, maintained ready for an egg until day 28, if not egg then the cycle restarts.
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What does FSH do?
Makes the egg mature and stimulate ovaries to produce oestrogen,
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What does Oestrogen do?
Causes pituitary gland to produce LH and inhibits release of FSH.
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What does LH do?
Causes an egg to be released from the ovaries on day 14.
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Name two hormones that are used to reduce fertility.
Oestrogen to prevent release of an egg and progesterone by stimulating thick cervical mucus to stop sperm.
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Give two Pros of the pill.
99% effective, reduces risk of cancer.
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Give two cons of the pill.
Isn't 100% effective, doesn't protect against STDs.
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Name two hormones that can be used to increase fertility.
FSH and LH can be given so an egg matures and is released
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How does IVF work?
Collect eggs from a women, fertilise in a lab, one or two embryos are transferred into the mother.
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Give two disadvantages of IVF.
Embryos are destroyed so can be unethical and multiple births can happen which are risky.
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Explain how roots grow towards gravity.
Auxin collects on bottom side of root, inhibits growth in roots so top grows faster, roots bends down.
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Explain how roots grow towards moisture.
Auxin collects on the side with more moisture, other side bends towards the moisture.
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Explain one method of using Auxin in Agriculture.
Add rooting powder which contains auxin so they will produce roots rapidly and start growing new plants, this helps produce lots of clones.
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Name the 4 things that need to be regulated in homeostasis.
Ion content, water content, blood glucose and body temp.
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How are excess ions removed from the body?
Kidneys will remove them from the blood, the god rid of in urine or sweat.
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Name three ways in which water is lost.
Sweating, breathing out and kidneys filter it in urine.
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How is your body temperature regulated?
The thermoregulatroy centre in the brain acts as a thermostat.
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How is your blood glucose level controlled?
Insulin when you have too much glucose and glucagon when its too low.
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What are the three types of drugs?
Medicinal, recreational and performance enhancing.
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Give an example of a performance enhancing drug and what it does.
Anabolic steroids and they increase muscle size.
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Give two arguments for performance enhancing drugs.
Althletes should be able to choose what they do and that its not fair anyway because some athletes can afford better coaching and facilities.
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Describe the first step in a Drug test.
Test the drug on human cells unless it is for whole of multiple body systems e.g. blood pressure.
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Describe the second step in a drug test.
Test the drug on living animals, this is to find out how toxic it is and the optimum soil.
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Describe the third step in a drug test.
Clinical trial, Test the drug on healthy volunteers to test for side effects (the dosage is gradually increases), test on ill people to get optimum dosage, two groups (one placebo and one with drug).
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Give an example of when a drug had not been tested enough.
thalidomide wasn't tested enough, made as a sleeping pill but helped morning sickness in women, it passed through the placenta and caused abnormal limb development, killed around 5000 babies.
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Give two reasons why people use recreational drugs.
Enjoyment and peer pressure from their background and friends.
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Give the 4 ways in which desert animals are adapted to save water and keep cool..
Large surface area to volume ration (lose more body heat), Efficient with water (e.g. little sweat and concentrated urine), Good in hot conditions (little body fat) and Sandy camouflage
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Give 3 ways Arctic animals are adapted to reduce heat loss.
Small surface area to volume ration (Reduce heat loss), thick layers of blubber and white fur.
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Give 3 ways Desert plants are adapted to have little amounts of water.
Small surface area to volume ration (reduce water loss with no leaves), water storage tissue (Thick stem) and shallow, extensive roots to get large area of water.
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Give one thing plants have to deter predators and one thing an animal has.
Some plants have thorns and poison, Some animals have warning colours e.g. wasps
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What 4 things will plants need to compete for?
Light, space, water and minerals.
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What 4 things will animals need to compete for?
Space, food, water and mates.
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Give 4 living factors which cause environmental change .
Change in occurrence of infectious disease, Change in number of predators, Change in number of pray and change in number/type of competition.
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Give the 3 non-living factors which cause environmental change.
Change in average temperature, change in average rain fall and change in level of air or water pollution.
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Give the 3 ways the population is affected from environmental change.
Population increase, population decrease and distribution of population changes.
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Give 3 examples of living indicators and what they do.
Litchen are sensitive to sulfur dioxide in the air from cars/power stations (less is good), Mayfly larvae need oxygen in water so they only go on clean water, maggots indicate high pollution.
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Give 3 examples of non-living indicators and what they do.
Satellites measure sea temp and amount of snow, automatic weather stations tell us atmospheric temp in certain locations and rain gauges to measure average rain fall
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What is biomas?
how much all the organism would weigh if you put them together.
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What kind of organism always goes on the bottom of a pyramid of biomass?
A producer.
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Give two ways the energy can be lost from a animal.
Movement and heat because they need to regulate their body temp which is usually higher then the surroundings
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What do plants do with the elements they take from the soil and the air?
Turn them in to complex compounds e.g. proteins and carbohydrates.
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How do these elements get recycled?
When the organism dies, the materials decay because they are broken down by micro-organisms which put the elements back in the soil.
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What kind of conditions do these micro organism work best in?
Warm, moist and lots of oxygen available e.g. compost bins.
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What is a 'Stable Community'?
The materials taken out are the balanced by those that are put back in.
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Give 4 ways that Carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere in the carbon cycle.
Animal respiration, burning fossil fuels, burning plant material and C02 released from decay.
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Give 1 way that C02 is taken out of the atmosphere in the carbon cycle.
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What are the two types of variation?
Genetic variation and environmental variation.
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What is genetic variation?
The combination of genes from two parents which causes variation.
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What is environmental variation?
Any difference that has been caused by conditions something lives in.
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What is a chromosome?
They carry genes which control the development of different characteristics.
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What is a gene?
A short length of the chromosome.
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What is a DNA molecule and what shape is it?
long coils which form the arms of the chromosomes, double helix.
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Give two ways a plant can be cloned.
Plant cutting is where the plant is cut and then planted and copies come out and tissue culture is where a few plants cells are in a growth medium with hormones to grow clones.
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Describe how embryo transplants work.
Sperm from prize bull, egg from prize cow, artificially feritilize them and then implant in to other cows to make ideal off spring.
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Describe how adult cell cloning works.
Take egg cell and remove genetic info, take body cell nucleus and insert into empty egg, shock the egg to divide then implant into an adult female.
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Describe 3 problems with cloning.
Seen as playing God, reduced gene pool (less alleles in population) and can cause very ill offspring,
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How do you use enzymes in genetic engineering?
Enzymes cut useful genes out of an organisms chromosomes, then used again to insert the useful gene into another organisms chromosome
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How do scientists make insulin?
Cut the insulin gene out of humans using enzymes, enzymes cut a gene out of bacteria and place in the insulin gene, the bacteria then reproduce to make insulin.
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Give 3 reasons why we would make GM crops.
resistant to viruses and insects, increase yield and make it contain lots of nutrients..
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Give 3 reasons against GM crops.
Reduces biodiversity, people dont trust it and it could be passed on to create 'super weeds'.
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What is the theory of evolution?
More than 3 billion years ago, life on Earth began as simple organisms from which the more complex organisms evolved.
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Why do some species have similar characteristics?
They have similar genes because they share a recent common ancestor e.g. whales and dolphins.
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Describe Darwin's idea of natural selection.
A mutation in the genes causes different characteristics, if the mutation causes a useful characteristic that ensures survival, it will be passed on to the offspring.
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Give three reasons why people didn't agree with Darwin.
again t religion, genes and mutations were yet discovered and not enough evidence.
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What did Lamarck think about evolution?
He believed that if the characteristics were used a lot it would become more developed in its life time.
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Card 2


What are fats used for?


To keep warm and release energy.

Card 3


What are proteins used for?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is meant by metabolic rate?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Give an example of when someone would need a higher metabolic rate.


Preview of the front of card 5
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