What's the difference between 'fit' and 'healthy'?
Healthy- being free of any infections or disease and Fit- a measure of how well you can preofrm physical tasks
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How can fitness be measured?
through strength, speed, agility, and flexibility all through stamina
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Where does the blood leave the heart from?
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Where does the blood flow back to the heart through?
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The blood pressure is at its highest when the heart contracts.
systolic pressure
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The heart relaxes, pressure is at its lowest
diastolic pressure
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What can factors can increase blood pressure?
smoking, being overweight, drinking to much alcohol, being under lots of stress for a long time
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How do narrow arteries increase the risk of heart attack?
Cholesteral can build up in your arteries causing plaques, plaques restrict the flow of blood. Also thrombosis can cause a heart attack by blocking blood flow to the heart and cutting oxygen
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Explain one way smoking can increase blood pressure?
Carbon Monoxide, combines with haemoglobin in red blood cells, reducing the amount of oxygen they can carry, the heart contracts more frequently, which increases blood pressure
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Another way smoking can increase blood pressure
Nicotine, increases heart rate, the heart contracts more often increasing blood pressure
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What are the 7 essential nutrients?
Carbohydrates, Protein, fats and Oils, Vitiamins, minerals, fiber,water
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EAR (Estimates Average Requirement)
EAR= 0.6 X body mass (kg) tells you how much protein the average person of a particular body mass should eat everyday
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BMI (Body Mass Index)
BMI= body mass divided by (height)2
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Explain what causes kwashiorkor
A diet that has too little protein;
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Why does kwashiorkor occur more commonly in developing countires?
Overpopulation, demand for protein rich food is greater than the amount available and Money- not inof to invest in agriculutre
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What are pathogens?
Pathogens are microorgansims that cause disease. Four types, Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa
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What is the meaning of the term parasite?
an organism that lives off another organism (called a host)
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Explain how your Immune system deals with pathogens
Three ways of attck: 1)Consuming them, white blood cells can engulf foreign cells and digest them. 2) Producing Antitoxins, Antitoxins counter the effefct of any poisons produced by the invading pathogens.
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Explain how antibodies destroy pathogens
White blood cells come accross foreign antigen(pathogen) the white blood cells start to produce protiens called antibodies, they lock on and kill the invading cell , antibodies are then produced rapidly and flow all around the body to kill, memory CO
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Explain how immunisation stops you getting infection
You are injected dead or inactive pathogens, these carry harmless antigens, yur white blood cells produce antibodis to 'attack' them, memory cells will remian so if live pathogens of the smae type ever appaer the antibodies will be produced rightaway
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Explain the differnce betweem benign and maligant tumours
Benign- harmless tumour, Maligant- the tumour grows and can spread. they are dangerous
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What is a double blind clinical trial?
A clinical trial in which the patient nor the scientist know whos is getting the real drung and hwo is getting the placebo, until all the results have been gathered
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What effect does a stimulant have on brian activity? Give to examples of stimulants
they increase brain activity and make you feel alert and awake. ex) nicotine, caffeine
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Describe how drinking too much alcohol can damage your liver
Alcohol is broken down by enzymes in the liver and some of the products are toxic, too much alcohol can kill liver cells forming scar tisssue that stops blood reaching the liver (cirrhosis)
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What type of drug is alcohol?
a depressant drug
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Explain why smoking can give you a 'smokers cough'
smoking damages the cilia, which encourages mucus to produce. Excess mucus cant be cleared bec. the cilia are damaged, it sticks to air passage causing the cough.
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Describe the path of light through the eye
Cornea- refracts light into the eye Iris- controls how much light enter pupil lens- refracts light, focusing into retina Retina- light sensitive, has receptors which detect light Cones- sensitive to diff. colors Optic nerve- carries impul
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Long sighted people cant ocus on
near objects; the lens is the wrong shap and doesnt bend the light enough, the near images are brought into focus behind the retina
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you can fix long sghtedness with
convex lens
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short ighted people cant focus on
distant objects, the lens is the wrong shape and bends the light too much, distant images are brought into focus infront of the retina,
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you can fix short sightedness with
concave lens
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explain how negative feedback helps maintain a constant internal enviorment
Changes in the enviorment trigger a response that counteracts the changes; e.g a rise in body temperature causes a response that lowers the body temperature
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maintaning a constant internal enviorment
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blood vessels close to the surface of the skin widen. allows more blood to flow near the surface, inorder to release heat
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Blood vessels near the constrict so that less heat can be transeferred from the blood to surroundings
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Exploain how insulin controls blood sugar levels
Blood glucose are monitored by and controlled by the pancreas using insulin; if the glucose level is too high insulin is added and of glucose level is too low insulin is not added. Insulin is a horomone
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What is the differnce betweeen how type 1 and type 2 are usually controlled?
People with type 1 diabetes neet to inject insulin and have a controlled diet. Whereas people with type 2 diabetes are controlled by avoiding foods rich in carbohydrates
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What are Auxins?
Auxinbs are plant horomones, they control growth at the tips of shoots and roots. Produced in the tips and diffuses backwards to stimulate the cell elongation process, Promotes growth in the shoot but acually inhibits growth in the root.
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Auxins change the direction of root and shoot growth
Shoots are positively phototropic(grows towards the light) and shoots are negatively geotropic. Roots are positively geotropic and roots are negatively phototropic
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Shoots are negatively geotropic. how are auxins responsible for this?
when a shoot is growing sideways gravity produces an unequal distribution of auxin in the tip, more auxin in the lower side
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Name three ways that plant growth horomones are used commercially
1) As selective weedkillers 2)Growing from cuttings with rooting powder 3) Controlling thee Ripening of fruit
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How many pair of chromosones are there in most human body cells?
23 pairs of chromosones
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What is an Allele?
The different versions of the same gene; give different versions of characteristics
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Name three resources of genetic variation
1)Gamete formation- making sperm cells and egg cells 2)Fertilisation-the gametes join together 3)mutations-changes to the genetic code
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Why is your ability at sport determined by both your genes and your enviorment?
Genes determine your potential, but training is important to develop the skill.
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Which chromosones determine your gender?
female-** male-xy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How can fitness be measured?


through strength, speed, agility, and flexibility all through stamina

Card 3


Where does the blood leave the heart from?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Where does the blood flow back to the heart through?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


The blood pressure is at its highest when the heart contracts.


Preview of the front of card 5
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