• Created by: elseey
  • Created on: 07-04-14 09:57
What does Healthy mean?
Healthy means being free of any infections or disease
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What does Fit mean?
Fit is a measurement of how well someone can perform physical exercises
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What can high blood pressure lead to?
Blood vessels being burst, which can lead to strokes, brain damage and kidney damage
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What can low blood pressure lead to?
Lack of Circulation and can cause lack of food and oxygen to cells, which can lead to dizzyness and fainting
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What can increase blood pressure?
Smoking; Being overweight; Alcohol; Stress for a long period of time
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How does Carbon Monoxide increase blood pressure?
Carbon Monoxide combines with haemoglobin which reduces the amount of oxygen they carry, resulting in heart rate increasing and increased blood pressure
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How does Nicotine increase blood pressure?
It increases heart rate, so the heart contracts more often, increasing blood pressure
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Saturated fats are bad because they..
..can cause the build up of Cholesteral in arteries, which forms plaque and restricts the arteries
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Carbohydrates are used for..
..providing energy
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Fats are used for..
..storing energy and to provide insulation
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Proteins are used for..
..growth and repair of tissue, and to provide energy in emergencies
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Vitamins and Minerals are used for..
..various reasons e.g. Vitamin C prevents Scurvy, and Iron (Mineral) is needed to make haemoglobin
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Water is used for..
..preventing dehydration in the body
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Carbohydrates are made up of..
..simple sugars like glucose. They are stored in the liver as glycogen or converted into fats
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Fats are made up of..
..fatty acids and glycerol. They can be stored under skin and around organs
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Proteins are made up of..
..amino acids. They dont get stored.
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Why is meat a better source of protein than nuts?
Meat is a first class protein, and contain all essential amino acids. Nuts therefore do not contain all the essential amino acids
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Kwashiorkor is a condition caused by the lack of..
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How do you work out a persons Estimated Average daily Requirement (EAR)?
EAR (g) = 0.6 x Body Mass (in kilograms)
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What is the equation for working out Body Mass Index (BMI)?
BMI = Body Mass (kg) / Height (m) squared
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What are the four types of pathogens that cause disease?
Fungi; Bacteria; Viruses; Protozoa (Single celled organisms)
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Describe how our immune system deals with Pathogens.
White blood cells engulf foreign cells; Antitoxins are produced which counter the effect of any toxins (poison)
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What are antibodies?
Antibodies are produced from White Blood Cells, and they lock on and kill new invading cells and are specific to that pathogen.
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What is a memory cell?
A white blood cell that stays in the body after infection is fought off, so that if the same infection happens again, it will be killed immediately
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What is Immunisation?
When you are injected with dead or inactive pathogens, which are harmless. This triggers an immune response and antibodies are then produced.
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Name some pros and cons with Immunisation.
Stops you from getting ill; Disease wont be able to spread as easy; You can be ill for a week or two after being immunised; You cant have a vaccine if you're already Ill; It may cause disorders in young children e.g. Autism
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What do Antibiotics do?
They kill bacteria without killing our own
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What do Antivirals do?
They prevent viruses from reproducing
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Name one problem with Antibioitics.
Some Bacteria become resistant to certain Antibiotics, resulting in no cure
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What are the two types of Tumour?
Benign & Malignant
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Benign is when the Tumour..
..doesn't spread to other parts of the body and grows until theres no more room. This isn't normally dangerous.
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Malignant is when the Tumour..
..does spread to other parts of the body and are dangerous and can be fatal
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What is the placebo effect?
When a patient in a clinical trial claims to feel better, although the patient has been given the 'dummy' pill
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Whats the difference betwen a single blind trial and a double blind trial?
Single Blind Trial is when the patient doesn't know what drug he is taking; Double Blind trial is when neither the patient or doctor know until results are gathered
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What do Depressants do?
They decrease brain activity, which slows down responses of the nervous system, causing slow reactions and poor judgement. Examples are Alchohol and solvents.
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What do Stimulants do?
They increase brain activity, which speeds up responses of the nervous system, which results in being more alert and awake. Examples are Nicotine, Ecstasy and Caffeine.
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What do Painkillers do?
They reduce the number of painful stimuli at the nerve endings near an injury. Examples are Aspirin and Paracetemol
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What do Performance Enhancers do?
They help build muscle and allow athletes to train harder. Examples are Anabolic Steroids
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What do Hallucinogens do?
They distort what is seen and heard by altering pathways that the brain sends messages along. Examples are LSD
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What does Alcohol do to the Liver?
Too much alcohol can cause the death of Liver cells and form scar tissue, that stops blood reaching the liver, which is called Cirrhosis
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Why is the damage of the Liver bad for the rest of the body?
The Liver cleans blood, so if it cant do its job then harmful substances can damage other cells in the body
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How does Tar effect us when Smoking?
Tar and toxic chemicals are carcinogens (cancerous). That means mutations in the DNA are more likely, resulting in a malignant Tumour
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How does Carbon Monoxide effect us when Smoking?
CO reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. Lack of oxygen in the blood can lead to a heart attack
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What is a Smokers Cough?
When Cilia and the lining of the bronchiole tubes are damaged, which encourages mucus to be produced. Excess mucus cant be cleared because the Cilia are damaged causing a Smokers Cough.
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How can smoking effect pregnant woman?
CO reduces oxygen in the blood,which deprives a foetus of oxygen, resulting in a smaller baby
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What three types of Neurone are the Nervous System made of?
Sensory Neurones; Relay Neurones; Motor Neurones
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What happens during a Reflex action?
The Sensory Neurone connects to a Relay Neurone in the Spinal Cord which is linked to a Motor Neurone, and the Brain isnt involved in any of this.
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Why are Reflex actions good?
They are done without thinking and are to protect us.
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What is Homeostatis?
The process which keeps a constant internal environment
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What is Negative Feedback?
An automatic function e.g. If there is a rise in temperature, the body lowers its temperature, and vise versa
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All Enzymes have an Optimum Temperature of..
..37 degrees Celsuis
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What happens when we are too hot?
Hairs lie flat; Sweat is produced to evaporate heat from the skin; Blood vessels near the skins surface widen, to radiate heat elsewhere
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What happens when we are too cold?
Hairs stand on end to produce a layer of air; No Sweat produced; Blood Vessels near the Skins surface contract so less heat can be radiated; Shiver, which produces heat
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Insulin is produced in the..
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When Glucose levels are high..
..Insulin is added, which makes the liver turn glucose into glycogen
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When Glucose levels are low..
..Insulin isn't added, which makes the liver turn glycogen into glucose, which is released into blood
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Type 1 Diabetes is when..
..the pancreas produces little or no insulin. The result is that a persons glucose content in the blood could kill them
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Type 2 Diabetes is when..
..a person becomes resistant to insulin. This can cause blood sugar levels to rise to a dangerous level.
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What are Auxins?
Auxins are plant Hormones which control growth at the tips of shoots (promotes) and roots (inhibits)
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Positively Phototropic means..
..it will grow towards the light, and the Auxin will go on the shaded side to make it grow longer on that side, to make it 'bend'
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Positively Geotrophic means..
..it will grow towards gravity, and the Auxin will go on the lower side because Auxin Inhibits root growth, which will make it 'bend' downwards
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How many pairs of Chromosomes does a Human have?
23 Pairs
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What is a Chromosome?
Carry genes which control the development of Characteristics e.g. eye colour
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What is a Gene?
A short length of the Chromsome
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What is an Allele?
Different types of the same gene e.g. blue or brown eyes
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What is a Gamete?
A sperm cell or egg cell produced in the testes or ovaries.
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What is Fertilisation in reproduction?
When the sperm and egg with 23 Chromosomes each join together to form the full 46 Chromosomes, or 23 pairs.
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What are the two main causes of Genetic Vartiaton?
Inherited & Environmental
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Dominant Alleles are presented by..
..a Capital Letter
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Recessive Alleles are presented by..
..a Lowercase Letter
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Homozygous means..
..you have two Alleles the same e.g. CC or cc
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Heterozygous means..
..you have two different Alleles e.g. Cc
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Genotype is the..
..Alleles you have for a specfic gene
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Phenotype is the..
..Chracteristics which the Alleles produce
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Card 2


What does Fit mean?


Fit is a measurement of how well someone can perform physical exercises

Card 3


What can high blood pressure lead to?


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Card 4


What can low blood pressure lead to?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What can increase blood pressure?


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