B1

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  • Created by: k.c98
  • Created on: 11-03-14 17:57
What does blood carry?
Oxygen and glucose to all body cells
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What is systolic pressure?
The maximum pressue the heart produces (contracts)
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What is diastolic pressure?
The lowest pressure the heart produces (relaxes)
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What are the seven causes of high blood pressure?
Poor diet Stress High saturated fat intake High alcohol intake High salt intake Age Smoking
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What are the consequences with burst blood vessels due to high blood pressure?
In brain = brain damage in kidney = kidney failure Strokes = paralysis and loss of speech
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What three things are caused by low blood pressure?
Dizziness Fainting Poor circulation
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Why does smoking cause high blood pressure?
Carbon monoxide in the smoke combines with red blood cells Reduces oxygen carrying capacity Heart rate increases to compensate Nicotine also increases heart rate
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Why does a high intake of saturated fat cause high blood pressure?
Leads to cholesterol (plaque) building up in arteries and the heard has to work harder to push blood past blockage If coronary artery is narrowed too much = THROMBOSIS = heart attack
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What is the function of the following nutrients? - Carbs and fats - Proteins - Fibre - Vitamins - Minerals
- Energy - Growth and repair - Prevent constipation - Eg vit C prevents scurvy - Eg iron makes haemoglobin
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What are the six reasons for why diets vary?
Age Gender Activity Religion Personal choice (vegeterian etc) Medical (allergies etc)
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What is the carbohydrate molecule made of and where is it stored?
Made of simple sugars like glucose Stored in the liver as glycogen or converted to fats
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What is the fat molecule made of and where is it stored?
Made of fatty acids and glycerol Stored under the skin as adipose tissue
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What is the protein molecule made of and where is it stored?
Made of amino acids Not stored in the body
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What are essential amino acids?
Amino acids that must be obtained from our diet because out body cannot make them 1st class = animals 2nd class = plants
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What is BMI?
A measure of body fat based on height and weight BMI = mass / (height ²)
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What is EAR?
The amount of protein you should eat per day EAR = mass x 0.6
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What is a deficiency disease?
A disease caused by a lack of a specific nutrient Eg. Protein = kwashiorkor
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What are the two causes of kwashiorkor?
Overpopulation Lack of investment in agricultural techniques
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What are infectious diseases?
Caused by pathogens eg: Fungi Bacteria Viruses Protozoa
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What are vectors?
Animals that carry pathogens but do not suffer from them
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What do all pathogens have?
An antigen on the surface that is unique to that pathogen
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What do antigens do?
Allows white blood cells to recognise a pathogen if it invades the body
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What is an example of a vector?
Malaria is caused by the protozoan called Plasmodium that is carried by mosquitoes
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What are the three ways to prevent the spread of malaria?
1. Drain stagnant water = removes eggs and lavae 2. Add oil to water = cuts of oxygen supplied to lavae 3. Use insectides to kill the adult
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What three ways to white blood cells deal with pathogens?
1. Engulf them = digests and destroys them 2. Produce anti-bodies = specific to pathogen and stick to antigen to destroy pathogen 3. Produce anti-toxins = counter effects poisons
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Why are you immune from the same pathogen after infection?
The anti-bodies remain in blood for a short time after infection The white blood cells create memory cells so they can remember how to create the anti-bodies
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What is active immunity?
When the white blood cells encounter a live pathogen or a weakened/dead strain of microbe. An immune response is stimulated = Long lasting but takes time to be effective
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What is passive immunity?
When the correct antibodies are given for the infection = Short term (WBCs didn't make them) but fast acting
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What happens in a vaccination?
-A harmless/dead pathogen is injected -Pathogens antigen triggers immune response and the white blood cells learn which antibodies to produce -Memory cells are made and remain in blood to defend from future infections
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What are the advantages of vaccination?
Stop pathogen from spreading Fewer deaths Fewer people ill requiring medical attention
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What are the disadvantages of vaccination?
Some people don't like needles Some people react to the jab Weakened immune system whilst body is dealing with vaccination and another pathogen invades the body
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What are antibiotics?
Drugs that kill bacteria only not viruses
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How to bacteria become resistance to antibiotics?
Over use = least resistant die Resistant bacteria survive Resistant bacteria reproduce Immunity passed on to offspring
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What is the order for testing drugs?
1. Computer models 2. Human tissue in lab 3. Animals 4. Human volunteers
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What is a blind trial?
Where the patient is unaware if they have the real drug or the placebo
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What is a double blind trial?
Where the patient and the doctor are unaware if the real drug or the placebo have been taken to remove bias from doctors
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What are the functions of the following parts of the eye? - Cornea - Iris - Lens - Retina - Optic Nerve
- Refracts light rays - Controls the amount of light entering eye - Refracts light - A focused image appears here that is light sensitive - Carries impulses to the brain
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What is monocular vision?
When we see with one eye
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What is binocular vision?
Used to see in 3D Vision from both eyes OVERLAP Lens refracts light to focus image on retina Retina has light receptors that react to light and send impulses to brain
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How do we percieve distances?
By comparing how different the images are from each eye Similar = object far Different = object close
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How does light get to the retina? (order of eye parts)
Cornea -> Iris -> Lens -> Retina
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What is accomodation?
The changes in our eyes to focus light on the retina
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How do we focus on close objects?
Light rays are spreading out = more refraction needed Ciliary muscles contract Suspensory ligaments relax Lens becomes more round
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How do we focus on distant objects?
Ciliary muscles relax Suspensory ligaments contract Lens flattens
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What lens' do short sighted people need?
Concave to bend the light outwards as the lens in the eye refracts the image into the middle of the eye and not on the retina
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What lens' do long sighted people need?
Convex to bend light inwards as the lens is unable to refract the image onto the retina
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is systolic pressure?

Back

The maximum pressue the heart produces (contracts)

Card 3

Front

What is diastolic pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the seven causes of high blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the consequences with burst blood vessels due to high blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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