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What are Bacteria?
Living cells that can multiply rapidly in the right conditions & release toxins that make us feel ill.
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What are Viruses?
Pathogens that can only reproduce inside host cells damaging them whilst they do so.
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What are the functions of White Blood Cells?
They can: ingest pathogens, produce antibodies, & produce antitoxins to counteract toxins released by pathogens.
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What is the main reason why we shouldn’t overuse antibiotics?
Overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of new strains of bacteria that reproduce.
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Suggest 2 reasons why it is an advantage to keep farm animals disease free?
Treated animals do not use energy overcoming illness and do not infect other animals/farm workers.
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What is a vaccination?
Inactive pathogen injected to immunise somebody against a disease/diseases. In the future white blood cells produce antibodies faster.
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How do antibiotics work?
Stop bacteria from reproducing
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What 3 disease does the MMR vaccine protect against?
Mumps, Measles & Rubella
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What would you do to culture micro-organisms in a laboratory?
Provide a culture medium (agar jelly), warmth + oxygen. Keep incubated @25°C in school labs & @35°C in industry. Kill all bacteria on equipment-pass metal loops through a flame; boil solutions&agar. Prevent micro-organisms from air getting into equip
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Why won’t a vaccination against a measles virus protect someone against the rubella virus?
As the antibodies are specific
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What does IVF involve?
Giving FSH&LH to stimulate the maturation of eggs which are collected and fertilised by sperm from the father. The zygotes develop into embryos and 1 or 2 embryos are inserted into the mother’s uterus
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What is a hormone and what organ produces it?
A chemical produced by a gland that controls bodily functions
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What are the main stages involved in a reflex?
Receptor detects a stimulus(i.e.light, touch). Sensory neuron (in nerves) transmits impulse to CNS. Relay neuron passes impulse across synapse. Motor neuron carries impulse to effector i.e. muscle (contracts) or gland (secretes chemicals)-->response.
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What happens at the synapse when during a reflex?
Chemical diffuses across synapse and transmits impulse between neurones.
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How are hormones transported to their target organs?
In blood
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Describe how the FSH (produced in pituitary glands), oestrogen (produced in ovaries) & LH are involved in the control of the menstrual cycle?
FSH stimulates oestrogen production. Oestrogen inhibits FSH. LH stimulates ovulation (releasing of mature egg) & womb lining to develop.
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What does the contraceptive pill contain?
Oestrogen & progesterone. Prg only pills = fewer side effects.
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How do hormones control plant growth?
Auxin is a hormone which controls phototropism (shoots grow towards light) & gravitropism (roots grow down towards gravity). Unequal distribution of auxin causes unequal growth resulting in bending of the shoot/root.
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What are drugs?
Chemicals that alter the body’s chemistry-If you stop taking addictive drugs you will suffer withdrawal symptoms.
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What are recreational drugs?
Drugs used for pleasure i.e. cocaine, cannabis and Heroin.
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What can Athletes use drugs for?
To enhance performance –i.e.stimulants boost heart rate, anabolic steroids stimulate muscle growth)
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How is drug testing carried out?
Tested on human cells in the laboratory, tested on animals, tested on healthy volunteers, tested on people with the illness.
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What are drugs tested for?
Toxicity, interaction with other drugs, efficacy (do they work?), dosage.
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What are blind trials?
The volunteers don’t know which group they’re in but the researcher do. The observers might give away something-->unreliable
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What are double blind trials?
Volunteers and researchers don’t know what group they’re in until the end of the trial-->More reliable
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What are placebos?
Inactive substance given in place of drug. Doctors feel it’s unfair as the patient won’t benefit from it.
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What factors should be fixed when testing drugs on volunteers?
Age, gender, body mass/weight/height, site of pain, severity of pain.
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What do plants + animals compete for?
Animals- food, mates + territory. Plant- light, space + nutrients from soil
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What can affect the distribution of living organisms?
Environmental factors incuding: Non-living (i.e temp, rainfall, light & oxygen). Living (i.e arrival of a new predator/disease, intro of new plants which might provide food/habitats.
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Name some pollution indicators.
Lichens (air pollution-the more lichen growing the cleaner the air), Freshwater invertebrates (the wider the range of FIs the cleaner the water) & Equipment (rain gauges, thermometers, PH/Oxygen sensors + data loggers)
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How can plants be adapted?
Small/waxy leaves to conserve water. Swollen/extensive stem to store water. Small/no stomata(holes through which water is lost.. Poisons/thorns/warning colours to put off animals. Thick stems, leaves low to the ground.
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How can animals be adapted?
Small SA: V ratio to retain heat. Large SA: V to lose heat. Camouflage, spines/horns to hurt predator. Streamlining/long limbs so that the prey can outrun the predator. Large ears/position of eyes so that predators are detected earlier to escape.
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What stages are involved in Decay processes?
Detritus feeders eat the dead animals/plants & produce waste. Decomposers then break down the waste/dead plants/animals.
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List examples of energy wastage between each stage of a food chain?
Energy stored in faeces/urine, used for respiration, movement & growth, to keep a constant temperature (animals). Not all of the animal/plant eaten.
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Why is the percentage of sunlight green plants absorb so low?
Some reflected/not absorbed/lost through respiration
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Why is recycling organic kitchen & garden waste necessary?
Reduce landfill, methane production, recycle materials & nutrients in the waste.
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What is asexual and sexual reproduction?
Asexual = Offspring genetically identical (clones) to 1 parent, no fusion of gametes involved. Sexual = variation in offspring due to mixing of genetic information, fusion of gametes
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What are the main stages in Genetic engineering?
Enzymes are used to cut out a gene of the chromosome of an organism & place it in the chromosomes of another organism.
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Why would scientists be worried about Genetic engineering?
Could transfer gene to other species. Could affect the food chain (species that eat them). Plants - Insects which aren’t pests may be affected by GM crops. Nobody knows the long-term effects.
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Explain how evolution occurs via natural selection.
Organisms within species may show variation because mutations (Change in gene) occur in individuals. The individuals with characteristics most suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce.
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Why was Darwin’s theory only gradually accepted?
Insufficient evidence at the time. Mechanism of inheritance/variation not yet known. Theory undermined idea that God made all plants & animals that live on earth.
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Why did the number of male Blue-moon butterflies in the population increase after the new form of gene appeared?
The mutation allowed the male blue moon butterflies survive better and reproduce passing the mutation to offspring.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are Viruses?


Pathogens that can only reproduce inside host cells damaging them whilst they do so.

Card 3


What are the functions of White Blood Cells?


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Card 4


What is the main reason why we shouldn’t overuse antibiotics?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Suggest 2 reasons why it is an advantage to keep farm animals disease free?


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