B1.6

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Where are genes found?
Genes are found in the threadlike structures called chromosomes, which are in a cell's nucleus.
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What is different about gametes?
The nuclei of gametes only contain a single set of chromosomes, and therefore contain only one set of genes.
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What do genes control?
Different genes control the development of different characteristics of the off-spring.
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Why do chromosomes come in pairs?
The genetic information from the parents is passed on to the off-spring during reproduction.One set came from female gamete(from the mother) and one set from the male gamete(from the father)
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What is asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes
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What is asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes. All of the genetic information comes from one parent. All of the off-spring are genetically identical to the parent, so there is little variety
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What is the difference in outcomes between sexual and asexual off-spring?
Indentical copies are produced by asexual reproduction whilst sexual production leads to variation in the off-spring, which is important in survival - some characteristics may give offspring a better chance of surviving difficult conditions.
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What is a sexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of gametes. There is a mixing of genetic information, so the off-spring show variation .
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What can cause differences in the characteristics of individuals of the same species?
Differences in the genes they have inherited. The conditions in which they have developed. A combination of both these genetic and environmental causes.
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How do environmental factors affect plants?
Lack of light, nutrients, or space to grow. The weaker plants may have the same genes as the healthier plants but cannot grow well if deprived of nutrients.
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How can human development be affected during pregnancy?
If the mother smokes or drinks a lot of alcohol, the baby may have a small birth weight.
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How do environmental factors affect animals?
Once animals are born, too much or too little food can alter their characteristics. For example, genes may determine if someone has the potential to be a good athlete. However, training to develop muscles and eating the correct diet will.
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What are the two factors which control some of our characteristics?
Genetic and environmental factors.
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What is cloning and what is it often used for?
Individuals which are genetically indentical to their parents are known as 'clones'. Cloning is often used to produce new individuals that are useful in farming and agriculture. It is more difficult to clone animals than it is to clone plants.
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Name a quick, cheap way of cloning plants.
Plants can be cloned by taking cuttings and growing them.
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What is tissue culture?
Tissue culture can be used to reproduce large numbers of a rare or top quality plant, which is more expensive because you have to take small groups of cells from part of a plant and growing them under special conditions.
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What is an embryo transplant?
Embryo transplants are used to clone animals. In this process an embryo with unspecialised cells is split into smaller groups of cells. Each group of gentically identical cells is transplanted and allowed to develop in a host animal.
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What is adult cell cloning?
When the nucleus of an adult cell e.g. skin cell, replaces the nucleus of an egg cell.
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What are the benefits of adult cell cloning?
Development of cloned animals which have been genetically engineered to rpoduce valuable proteins in their milk. These have uses in medicine. Cloning can save animals from extinction.
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What are the disadvantages of adult cell cloning?
Concerns about the ethics of cloning. Cloning limits the variation in a population(limits the gene pool). This can be a problem for natural selection if the environment changes. Concerns about using the technique to clone humans in the future.
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What is genetic engineering?
Genetic engineering involves changing the genetic make-up of an organism.
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What is used to cut genes and why?
A gene is 'cut out' of the chromosomes of an organism using an enzyme. The gene is then placed in the chromosome of another organism, to give it a desired characteristic.
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Give an example of genes being placed in a different species.
The gene to produce insulin in humans can be placed in bacteriumn. For example, the gene to produce insulin in humans can be placed in bacteria. Then the bacteria can produce large quantities of insulin to treat diabetes.
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What are GM plants and what is different about them?
Crops with changed genes are called genetically modified(GM) crop plants. GM crops may be insect -or herbicide- resistant and usually have increased yields.
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What are the advantages of cloning and genetic engineering?
Cloning cattle can produce herds of cattle with useful characteristics. Adult cell cloning may be used to make copies of the best animals, e.g.race horses . If a person has a faulty gene they may have a genetic disorder. If the correct gene can be tr
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is different about gametes?

Back

The nuclei of gametes only contain a single set of chromosomes, and therefore contain only one set of genes.

Card 3

Front

What do genes control?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do chromosomes come in pairs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is asexual reproduction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Swallowtail

These flashcards have easy to understand questions and well written answers that make good use of the key scientific terminology. They would be suitable for any student needing to study reproduction, genetic engineering and cloning for GCSE Biology or science.

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