B1.2 Nerves and Hormones

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What does the CNS consist of?
The brain and the spinal cord.
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What is the job of the central nervous system?
The CNS can co-ordinate a response to a stimulus using nerve cells. Nerve cells, or neurones are specialised cells that transmit electrical impulses around the body.
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What is a stimulus?
a change in your surroundings which you may need to react to. A stimulus can be light, sound, touch, pressure, pain, chemical or a change in position or temperature.
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What is a receptor?
the groups of cells which are sensitive to a stimulus. They change the stimulus energy into electrical impulses.
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What is an effector?
Muscles and glands are known as effectors- they respond in different ways. Muscles contract in response to a nervous impulse, whereas glands secrete hormones.
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What are neurones?
Neurones are nerve cells which transmit the information as electrical impulses very quickly to and from the CNS.
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What are the three types of Neurone
Sensory neurones, relay neurones and motor neurones
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What does the sensory neurone do?
Go from the receptor to the CNS
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What does the relay neurones do?
Link the sensory and motor neurones together
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What does the motor neurones do?
Goes from the CNS back to the effector.
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What is a synapes?
A synapse is a junction between two neurones across which electrical signals diffuse. These chemicals then set off a new electrical signal in the next neurone.
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What is the reflex arc?
reflexes are automatic responses to cetain stimuli- they can reduce the chances of being injured. If you get a shock your body releases th ehormone adrenaline automatically. The passage of informaton in a reflex is called a reflex arc.
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How do neurones send messages?
when a stimulus is detected by a receptor it generates an electrical signal, known as an impulse. This signal travels along the sensory neurone to the brain or spinal cord.
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What is a hormone?
A hormone is a chemical that is released directly into the blood. They are carried in the blood plasma to other parts of the body but only affect target eclls.
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definition of hormones
hormones are chemical messengers which travel in the blood to activate target cells.
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Where are the hormones produced and secreted from?
The pituitary gland produces many important hormones such as FSH and LH which are involved with the menstrual cycle. In females only the Ovaries produce oestrogen which is also involved in the menstrual cycle.
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How do you know the difference between nerves and hormones?
Nerves are a very fast action. They act for a short time and act on a very precise area. Hormones are a slower action, they act for a long time and act in a more general way.
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What does FSH do?
FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) is released from the pituitary gland and targets the ovaries. FSH causes the egg to mature and also stimulates the ovaries to make oestrogen.
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What does Oestrogen do?
Oestrogen is released from the ovaries and targets the uterus. Oestrogen stimulates the lining of the uterus to thicken ready for pregnancy. It also stimulates LH produce in the ovaries. Also stimulates FSH production.
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What does LH do?
LH is produced by the Pituitary Gland and is secreted from the ovaries. It stimulates the release of a mature egg.
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What is ovulation?
the release of an egg from an ovary?
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What is the menstrual cycle?
The process of building up the uterus lining and releasing an egg once a month.
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What is a period?
This occurs at the start of the menstrual cycle (breaking down of uterus lining)
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What is IVF?
Woman takes FSH for 6 days a month to produce eggs. The ripe eggs are then collected to be fertilised. the eggs are mixed with the partner's sperm. Embryos can be introduced into the womb.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of IVF
IVF can be available on the NHS and has allowed thousands of people to be able to have children. However multiple pregnancies have happened through single cycles. It can cost between £5,000 and £10,000.
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How does FSH help increase fertility?
some womens levels of FSH are too low to cause their eggs to mature. The hormones LH and FSH are injected daily. A scan is done to see if eggs are developing. Monthly cycle will produce one egg but produce several ripe eggs to increase the chances.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of fertility treatments?
it has meant that thousands of couples have been able to have children. It increased the chance of multiple births. It can lead to a rare condition called ovarian hyperstimulation.
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Card 2


What is the job of the central nervous system?


The CNS can co-ordinate a response to a stimulus using nerve cells. Nerve cells, or neurones are specialised cells that transmit electrical impulses around the body.

Card 3


What is a stimulus?


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Card 4


What is a receptor?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is an effector?


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