B1.1 Keeping Healthy

What does Malnourished mean?
When you don't have a balanced diet
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Define the Metabolic rate
The rate at which chemical reactions take place and can vary from person to person.
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What does the Eatwell plate contain?
Different food groups to create a balanced diet
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Name the food groups
Fat and Sugar, Fruit and veg, Carbohydrates, Dairy and Milk, Non-dairy protein and Water
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Name two factors which can affect the metabolic rate
Gender, amount of exercise weekly and age
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Why do some people put on more weight than others?
Because if their metabolic rate is higher then they burn fat quicker than someone with a lower metabolic rate but it differs from person to person
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What is cholestorel
A type of fat made by the liver(in every cell)
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How does cholesterol travel around the body?
Carried around by the bloodstream attached to a protein
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What can cause high levels of harmful cholesterol?
Saturated fats, inherited factors and it's 1 in 500 people
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What does cholesterol do to the arteries and the heart?
Fat builds up in wall, blocking access for blood to pass through
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What lowers cholesterol levels?
Regular exercise
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Name the two types of cholesterol and describe them
Ones healthy-carries cholesterol to the liver and one causes health issues-bad-carries cholesterol to the cells
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What are the effects of too much LDL?
Increase risk of heart disease and cholesterol deposits
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The amount of cholesterol in the blood is affected by 2 things, name them
By eating plenty of polyunsaturated fats and not many saturatewd
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What are Statins, describe the side effects
Liver problems, need to be taken for life and links to memory loss
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What's the importance of having the balance of good and bad Cholesterol and how's this affected by diet?
The good cholesterol will help break down the bad cholesterol
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What is a pathogen?
A pathogen is a disease caused by microorganisms
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What's a microorganism?
A microorganism is a very small living thing
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How microbes make us feel ill- Bacteria
Less than 10 micrometers long, makes you feel ill by damaging the cells and produces Toxins, very small cells and reproduce rapidly
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Define a virus
They aren't cells, they replicate themselves by invading cells the cells burst and release the new virus-this makes you feel ill.
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Difference between Viruses and Bacteria
Virus' are smaller than Bacteria, Virus' invade cells, reproduce in host cells causing it to burst which releases more virus into the bloodstream and airway
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Give examples of a virus caused illness
Common colds, measles, flu, mumps, rubella and chicken pox
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Give examples of a bacteria caused illness
food poisoning,whooping cough, Cholera and Typhoid
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What does bacteria contain that Viruses don't?
A Cytoplasm
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What do neither a Virus or Bacteria contain?
No Nucleus
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What wouldn't happen it the blood didn't clot?
More bacteria would enter through cuts and scabs wouldn't be able to form
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What would happen if there were less white blood cells(WBC)
There wouldn't be as easy to fight off microbes.
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If someone had damaged skin what would happen?
The skin cannot protect them so they are more likely to get infectious
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Describe why paracetamol is used and what it's used to treat
It's used as a painkiller and treats headaches, inflammations and stomach cramps.
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Why do people use Antibiotics and what it's used to treat
It's used for bacterial infections and kills bacteria
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How do antibiotics work on bacteria?
Bacteria invades, multiply and release toxins making us feel ill. Antibiotics kill bacteria but don't affect the cells
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Why don't antibiotics work on Viruses?
Viruses invade cells and multiply, they destroy the cells, Antibiotics cannot get into cells and Viruses are immune to them, We cannot treat Viruses without harming the body's cells
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How could you kill bacteria outside the body?
By using chemicals such as: Antiseptics, disinfectants and antibacterial
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What is a cultural medium and what's its scientific name?
A gel that's given to microorganisms containing nutrients and it's called agar Jelly
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When growing bacteria why does the inoculating loop need to be held in a Bunsen burner?
So that any bacteria already on the inoculating loop is killed making it sterile
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Why must the inoculating loop be sterilized when it has touched a different surface?
To prevent contamination- the bacteria which might be on the surface
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Why must the inoculating loop be zig-zagged over the surface of the agar Jelly?
It allows more space for the bacteria to grow
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Why must the plate be left to incubate?
So that the bacteria has time to grow
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In schools why's the highest temp allowed to grow bacteria in 25 degrees Celsius?
If bacteria was grown in a temperature of over 25 degrees it could grown harmful pathogens which could harm people
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Why are the lids of the plates sealed so it's airtight?
So that oxygen can get in and no harmful bacteria colonies can grow
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What's epidemic?
where it affects one country
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What's pandemic?
Where it affects more than one country
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What's MRSA?
A superbacteria, When antibiotics don't affect the cells/ immune to antibiotics
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What does MRSA stand for?
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
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What's antibiotic resistance?
A bacteria that used to be able to be killed by a drug isn't affected by them anymore.
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Define MRSA
A result of natural selection, a superbacteria which isn't affected by antibiotics
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How can you reduce the spread of MRSA?
Antibiotics should only be used when needed, bacteria should be treated with specific antibiotics, Medical staff should wash hands in between patients and wear disposable gloves, visitors should wash their hands upon entering hospitals.
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reducing the spread of MRSA (continued)
Patients infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria should be looked after in Isolation, Hospitals should be kept clean
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define the Metabolic rate


The rate at which chemical reactions take place and can vary from person to person.

Card 3


What does the Eatwell plate contain?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Name the food groups


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Name two factors which can affect the metabolic rate


Preview of the front of card 5
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