B1 Understanding organisms

What is systolic pressure?
The maximum pressure the heart produces
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Give a definition of fitness
Ability to do physical exercise. Measured by: strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speed
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Give a definition of health
Being free from disease caused by pathogens e.g. bacteria and viruses
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What can cause high blood pressure?
Blood pressure is increased if there is a build up of cholesterol, narrowing the arteries so less blood gets though and more pressure on the heart.
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Why does carbon monoxide decrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood?
The carbon monoxide combines with the haemoglobin preventing it combining with the oxygen.
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Name the two substances that make up fats.
Fatty acids and glycerol
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Which factors will affect someones diet?
Age, gender, level of activity, religion, vegetarian/vegan or medical issues.
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What can too little protein in the diet cause?
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Give some examples of where first-class proteins come from?
Meat and fish
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What is BMI?
Body Mass Index, it gives indications to whether someone is overweight - obese.
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Give an example of a vector and why it is a vector?
Mosquitoes because they carry plasmodium which doesn't harm the mosquito
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What do parasites do?
Feed on another living organism causing it harm
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Give examples of benign and malignant tumours.
Benign - warts because the divide slowly and are harmless. Malignant- cancers because the growth is uncontrolled and may spread
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How does the body protect itself from a pathogen?
Antibodies lock onto antigens which are on the surface of the pathogen
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Give three steps in the process of immunisation.
1) Harmless pathogen carrying antigens injected in body 2) Antigens trigger response of white blood cells producing antibodies 3) Memory cells remain in the body providing long lasting immunity
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Describe what happens in a blind trial
The patient does not know if they are receiving the new drug or the placebo to avoid biased opinions
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What could excessive use of antibodies result in?
Resistant forms of bacteria becoming common e.g. MRSA has thrived and caused serious illness
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What do the cornea and the lens do to the light rays?
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What does binocular vision help with?
Judging distances
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Why are some people long-sighted? How is it corrected?
The eyeball is too short and the lens is too thin causing the image to focus behind the retina. It is corrected using a convex lens
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Where do nerve impulses pass along?
The axon (the long stem looking thing in a nerve)
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What happens in a reflex arc?
Stimulus -> Receptor -> Sensory neuron -> Central nervous system -> Motor neuron -> Effector -> Response
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List the pathway for a spinal reflex.
Receptor -> Sensory neurone -> Relay neurone -> Motor neurone -> Effector
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How have neurones adapted?
Being long; having branched endings to pick up impulses; and having an insulated sheath
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What happens at a synapse?
An impulse arrives triggering the release of a transmitter substance which diffuses across the synapse. The transmitter substance binds with the receptor molecule in the membrane of the next neurone.
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Name 5 types of drugs
Depressant, painkiller, stimulant, performance enhancer, hallucinogen
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Explain the effect on the cilia from cigarette smoke.
The smoke contains chemical which stop the cilia (tiny hairs found in the lining of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles) moving and the mucus isn't moved so the smoker coughs
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What is the cirrhosis of the liver?
When the liver gets damaged when breaking down toxic chemicals e.g. alcohol
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Give a definition of homeostasis
Balancing bodily inputs and outputs using negative feedback.
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What could a high temperature cause?
Heat stroke or dehydration or hypERthermia
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How is over heating avoided in the body?
Sweating requires body heat to evaporate.
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Which gland monitors blood temperature?
Hypothalamus gland in the brain
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What are 'vasoconstriction' and 'vasodilation'?
Vasoconstriction - blood vessels get narrower when cold to avoid heat loss. Vasodilation - blood vessels get larger to increase heat transfer
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What does insulin do?
Converts excess glucose into glycogen which is stored in the liver - regulating blood sugar levels
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Phototropism is the plant's response to light, how does the shoots grow in relation?
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Where are more auxins found in a plant?
Shady side of the plant so the plant will grow towards the light
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Give some commercial uses of plant hormones
Weedkillers, rooting powder, fruit ripening, dormant seeds
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
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Are dominant or recessive alleles shown?
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How many pairs of chromosones do humans have?
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What is genetic variation caused by?
mutations, rearrangement, fertilisation
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Give definitions of homozygous and heterozygous
Homozygous is identical alleles, heterozygous means different alleles
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What could cause inherited disorders?
Faulty alleles
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Give a definition of fitness


Ability to do physical exercise. Measured by: strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speed

Card 3


Give a definition of health


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What can cause high blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why does carbon monoxide decrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood?


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