B1 Staying Healthy part 2

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If you've been infected by a particular pathogen?
your white blood cells antibodies
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If the same pathogen is detected again?
it means that they can produce the necessary antibodies much quicker
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future protection against a disease is called what?
natural or active immunity
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Why do antibodies stay in the blood for years?
to fight future infections
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What does immunisation/vaccination do?
provide natural immunity from a disease (from certain pathogens) without you becoming infected or ill.
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In a vaccination what is the person injected with?
a weakened or dead strain of the pathogen which is incapable of multiplying
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When harmless pathogens are injected into the body what do the antigens (markers) do?
the antigens trigger the production of specific antibodies by the whit blood cells
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What is remains in the blood after the pathogen has been dealt with?
white blood cells (memory cells are produced)
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What are the 2 benefits of immunisation?
1. it protects against diseases which could kill or cause disabilities 2. if everybody is vaccinated, the disease can't spread and will eventually die
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What are the 2 risks of immunisation?
1. and individual could have a bad reaction 2. no vaccination is 100 percent safe
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When does passive immunity occur?
When antibodies are put into an individual's, rather than the body producing them itslelf
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When is passive immunity used?
when a very quick response is needed or when a person has a weak immune system
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Why does a human require passive immunity when bitten by a snake (the pathogens or toxins)?
a persons immune system is unable to produce antibodies to destroy the pathogen quickly enough so they must be injected with antibodies.
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Why doesn't passive immunity give a person long term protection against a disease?
because their white blood cells didn't produce the antibodies for themselves . after a while they will have no antibodies for that antigen left in their blood.
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What are diseases caused by?
bacteria and fungi
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What can diseases be treated by?
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What are antiviral drugs used for?
diseases caused by viruses only
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What are antibiotics very good at?
killing bacteria
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What happens if doctors over prescribe antibiotics?
all the bacteria in a population are killed off except the resistant ones which then spread so the antibiotics become useless
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What is MRSA?
a bacteria which has become resistant to most antibiotics making it a dangerous microorganism
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What is needed to prevent resistant bacteria occurring?
more careful use of antobiotics
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What does new drugs have to be before they are released to the public?
tested to make sure that they are effective and safe
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how are computer models used to test drugs?
to predict how it will affect cells, based on known information about how the body works and the effects of similar drugs
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How are animals used to test drugs?
to see how it affects living organisms (many people disagree due to animal cruelty)
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How is human tissue used to test drugs?
(grown in a laboratory)to see how it affects humans cells. (some people believe this is unnatural and wrong)
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What two groups of humans must a drug be tested on?
ones who are healthy and ones who have the disease
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When drug testing on humans what are the two drugs given out?
placebo (an inafective pill) and the new drug
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Why when testing drugs are both placebo and the actual drugs used?
so that the effects of both can be compared
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What can drug trials never be?
completely safe or completely effective
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What happens in a blind trial?
the volunteers don't know which drug they've been given
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Why do blind trials help?
it eliminates and physiological factors and helps to provide a fair comparison
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What happens in a double blind trial?
both the volunteers and doctors don't know which drug is which
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Why do double blind trials help?
can be any bias
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


If the same pathogen is detected again?


it means that they can produce the necessary antibodies much quicker

Card 3


future protection against a disease is called what?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why do antibodies stay in the blood for years?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does immunisation/vaccination do?


Preview of the front of card 5
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