B1 Staying Healthy part 1

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What is a non-infectious disease?
one that cant be caught from another person
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How can a poor diet increase the chance of having a non-infectious disease?
lack of vitamin c eg. scurvy and a lack of iron causes anemia
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How can a organ malfunction increase the chance of having a non-infectious disease?
the pancreas stops producing insulin (which causes diabetes)
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How can genetic inheritance increase the chance of having a non-infectious disease?
people inherit the genes for a particular disease from their parent eg. red-green colour blindness
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How can cells mutating give you a non-infectious disease?
cells mutate and become cancerous
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How are non-infectious diseases different to infectious diseases?
non-infectious diseases can be caught and no pathogens are involved
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What is cancer?
a non-infectious disease where cells grow uncontrollably and form tumours
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What impacts your chances of getting cancer?
lifestyle choices
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How can smoking increase the chance of getting cancer?
chemicals in cigarettes cause lung cancer and other cancers such as lung cancer
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How can drinking increase the chance of getting cancer?
excess alcohol is linked to cancer of the liver, gut and mouth
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How can getting sun burnt increase the chance of getting cancer?
skin cells damaged by the sun can become cancerous
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How can eating a healthy diet decrease the chance of getting cancer?
high-fibre diets can reduce the risk of bowel cancer
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How do cancerous cells divide?
in an abnormal and uncontrolled way
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What are the lumps of cells that form called?
tumours
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What is a tumour that grows in one place described as?
a benign
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what is it called when cells break off of a benign tumour an start to grow in other parts of the body?
malignant tumor
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what are infectious diseases?
ones that spread from one person to another
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What are infectious diseases caused by?
pathogens
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what are pathogens?
microorganisms that attack and invade the body
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what are four examples of infectious diseases?
fungi, viruses, bacteria and protozoa
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What is athletes foot caused by?
fungus
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What is flu caused by?
virus
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What is clolrea caused by?
a bacterium
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What is malaria caused by?
a protozoan
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What is an example of a disease spread by vectors?
malaria
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What is the vector in the spreading of malaria?
mosquito
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what is a host?
where the vector lives (malaria eg. the human)
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What are parasites?
organisms that live off of other organisms
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What happens if there are other malaria parasites in the blood?
they mate and move from the mosquito's gut to its salivary glands
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What happens when a mosquito bites another person?
it passes the malaria parasites into their bloodstream
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What happens when the malaria parasites move to the liver?
They mature and reproduce
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What happens after the malaria parasites reproduce in the liver?
the new generation of malaria parasites migrates to the blood and replicates in red blood cells, bursting them open.
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What can the malaria parasites bursting red blood cells lead to?
characteristic malaria fever and even sometimes death
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What examples of controlling a vector are there?
sleeping under mosquito nets, using insect repellent and killing mosquitoes with insecticide
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How does the body stop pathogens getting in?
it has a number of defences
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How does skin act as a defence against pathogens?
acts as a barrier against microorganisms
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How does blood clots act as a defence against pathogens?
the prevent microorganisms entering the bloodstream through wounds
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How does the respiratory system act as a defence against pathogens?
its lined with cells that produce a sticky liquid ,mucus that forms a mucus membrane to trap microorganisms
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How does stomach act as a defence against pathogens?
it produces hydrochloric acid which kills microorganisms in the food we eat
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What happens if pathogens enter the body?
white blood cells start fighting the invasion
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What are the symptoms of a disease caused by?
pathogens damaging cells and producing toxins before the whit blood cell can destroy them
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What are the two ways white blood cells can deal with pathogens?
1. by engulfing and digesting 2. making antibodies to attack pathogens
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What do antibodies recognise on the surface of the pathogen?
markers (antigens)
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Once white blood cells recognise markers what do the antibodies that they produce do to them?
lock onto the markers, killing the pathogens
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What different thing does every pathogen have?
unique antigens
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Why do white blood cells make antibodies specifically?
to match a particular antigen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How can a poor diet increase the chance of having a non-infectious disease?

Back

lack of vitamin c eg. scurvy and a lack of iron causes anemia

Card 3

Front

How can a organ malfunction increase the chance of having a non-infectious disease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can genetic inheritance increase the chance of having a non-infectious disease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can cells mutating give you a non-infectious disease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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