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What are the effects of not eating enough food?
Suffer starvation or become malnourished
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Cannot be digested, fills you up, keeps you regular
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Helps release energy from food
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Helps the body work and helps the concentration
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Hydrates body cells and keeps fluid levels constant
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How Vaccines prevent you from getting infectious diseases?
1. Vaccines contain dead/inactive versions of that pathogen, its usually given by an injection. 2. The antigens on the pathogen stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies to kill it without any risk of you getting the disease. 3.
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What do Carbohydrates, Fats and Protiens do?
Release energy and repair and regrowth of cells
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Method for Culturing Microorgrams
We culture microorganisms to see the effects of antibiotics on bacteria. Dip innoculating loop into suspension of bacteria you want to go, then streak it in the agar jelly in zig zags.
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How to use aseptic techniques for culturing microorganisms?
1. Sterilise agar jelly, petri dish and any other culture medium. 2. Sterilise innoculating loop by passing it under the bunsen burner flame to kill the microorganisms. 3. Sellotape around the lid of petridish to avoid contamination from microbes in
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Difference in school and industrial temperatures for growing Microbes?
In school laboratories, cultures are grown at 25. In industry they are grown at 35 for faster growth. They have lower temperatures in school as if the temperature was near body temp (37.4) they can be harmful to health
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Define Pathogen
A tiny microorganism causing infectious diseases
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Where is Cholesterol produced?
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Why is Cholesterol needed?
For healthy cell membranes
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Explain Antibiotic Resistance
Antibiotic Resistance occurs due to Natural Selection. The bacterium that are not resistant will be destroyed by antibiotics. The bacterium that are resistant, survive to produce a whole strain of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
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What do antibiotics do?
Kill or stop the growth of a pathogen.
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What do painkillers do?
Releive the symptoms but do not kill the Pathogen. They releive the symptons by blocking nerve impulses to the area of pain.
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Effects of Eating Too Much Food
-Obesity (Long term obesity can cause type 2 diabetes - high blood sugar) -Coronary heart disease due to the build of cholesterol in the coronary arteries
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What is metabolic rate affected by?
Inherited factors, proportion of muscle to fat ratio, amount of excerise/physical activity carried out
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How are clones produced by Tissue Culture?
1. A group of cells are removed from plant and incubated in plant hormone in petri dishes, this mass produces genetically identical clones of the original plant.
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How are clones produced by cuttings?
1. Take a cutting of the plant, dip it in rooting powder to encourage growth of roots and then grow it to produce genetically identical clones/
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Why are there differences in characteristics of organisms?
Organisms are produced by sexual reproduction consisting the fusion of two gametes. This mixes the genetic information which causes genetic variation in the offspring.
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What do Genes controll?
Genes controll the development of different characteristics in the offspring
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Four conditions that affect decay?
Temperature, Amount of Oxygen, Amount of Water, The prescence of Microorganisms
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Conditions that microorganisms grow fastest in?
Warmth, Nutrients, Moisture
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How are Oxygen Levels Measured?
Oxygen Sensor
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How is Temperature Measured?
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How is rainfall measured?
Rain Gauges
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The role of Invertebrates?
Invertebrates are indicators of water pollution, particularly the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water. The wider the range of invertebrates, the cleaner the water
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The Role of Lichens?
Lichens are indicators of air pollution, particularly Sulfur Dioxide. The cleaner the water, the more Lichens.
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Name three living factors that affect the distribution of organisms?
The arrival of a new predator, the arrival of a new disease, introduction to new plants that produce food or habitat
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Four non living factors that affect the distribution of organisms?
Rainfall, Temperature, Amount of Oxygen, Light
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Three examples of Extreme Conditions?
High temperatures, high concentration of salt in water, high pressures
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What are extremophiles?
Living organisms that can live in extreme conditions that most organisms would not be able to survive in.
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How is the camel adapted to hot climates?
Small surface area to volume ratio to avoid heat loss by radiation, ability to withstand high temperatures, be able to store water by not producing alot of sweat or urine, thick fur on top of body for shade and thin fur everywhere else to make heatlo
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How is Polar Bear adapted to cold climates?
White appearance to camoflauge, large surface area to volume ratio, thick layers of fur and fat for insulation, a greasy coat to shed water after swimming
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What do animals compete for?
Food, Water, Shelter, Breeding Sites, Mates
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What do plants complete for?
Light, Nutrients, Water
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LH is the luteinisng hormone, produced in pituitary gland. Stimlates release of egg from ovary (ovulation)
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Produced by ovaries. Inhibits the further production of FSH, stimulates further production of LH, stimulates womb lining to develop to be able to receive a fertilised egg.
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FSH is the Follice Stimulating Hormone. Its produced in the pituitary gland. FSH causes egg to mature and Oestrogen to be produced
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What controlls the Blood Sugar Levels?
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Definition of Asexual Reproduction?
Reproduction with only one parent, so only one set of genetic information, to produce an identical clone
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What is genetic engineering?
The transfer of cells from one organism to another
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How animals are cloned using embryo transplants?
Sperm fertilises the egg, then this develops into an early stage embryo (make sure no cells are specialised). Use a glass rod to split the embryo in half, then implant both embryos into the womb of a host mother where is can grow and develop into gen
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How are animals cloned using adult cell cloning? Part 1
1. A body cell eg. skin cell is removed from the animal you want to clone. 2. The nucleas containing the genetic information is removed. 3. An unfertilised egg cell from another animal of that species is removed.
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How are animals cloned using adult cell cloning? Part 2
4. The Nucleas is removed from unfertilised egg cell to leave an empty egg cell. 5. Nucleas from the body cell is inserted into the empty egg cell.6. Cell is given an electric shock to divide into an embryo which is implanted into womb of a host moth
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Define what GM (Genetically Modified) is?
A genetically modified organism is created by using DNA from another Species
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Process of Genetic Engineering?
1. Find the gene required. 2. Using an enzyme, cut the gene from the DNA. 3. Using an enzyme, cut a gap into a bacterial DNA. 4. Insert gene into bacterial DNA. 5. Place this back into a Bacterium which then reproduces
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Problems with GM Crops
1. If it gets into other plants. 2. Effects on animals or humans who eat this plant
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Three ways why Natural Selection wasn't accepted at first?
1. People beleived in creationism - the theory that God created everything. 2. Not enough evidence to backup his ideas. 3. Didn't know about inheritance or variation
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Features of Light Receptor Cells
Found in retina in the back of the eye, have a nucleas, cytoplasm and cell membrane.
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Oral Contraceptives
Stop Pregnancy
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Causes Pregnancy
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What do Oral Contraceptive Pills contain?
They contain Oestrogen, because Oestrogen inhibits the further production of FSH so eggs cannot mature. However Oestrogen pills have side affects like headaches and high blood pressure so sometimes progesterone only pills are used.
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What do Fertility Drugs contain?
Fertility drugs encourage pregnancy, so contains FSH to mature the egg and contains LH to release the egg.
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Process of IVF Treatment?
1. Given fertility drugs containing FSH and LH to produce a mature egg that is released. 2. Mature egg is removed from the ovary into a petri dish. 3. Fertilised by sperm to develop into an embryo. 4. Embryo implanted back into the womb of the mother
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Phototropism in plant shoots?
Plant shoots contain more auxin on the shaded side, so the plant grows longer on the shaded side, so it grows towards the light.
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Phototropism in plant roots?
There are more auxin on the shaded side, the shaded side grows less, so the roots bend away from the light.
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Positive Geotropism?
The roots growing down towards gravity and towards moisture
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Negative Geotropism?
The shoots growing upwards against the force of gravity and towards light
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Auxins in Shoots?
Encourages growth
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Auxins in Roots?
Slows growth
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Agricultural Uses of Plant Hormones?
In rooting powders, to encourage growth of roots. In weedkillers, there are a high dose of auxins which causes a rapid accelerated growth which kills the plant
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Effects of recreational drugs?
Suffer withdrawal symptoms, psychological effects and adverse effects on heart and circulatory system
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Effects of cannabis?
Gateway drug and leads to mental illness
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Increase muscle mass
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Increase Heart rate
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