B1 DEFINITIONS

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GAMETES
Sex Cells (Sperm & Egg)
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CHROMOSOMES
Coil of DNA made up of genes found in the nucleus of plant/animal cells
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GENE
Section of DNA (in a chromosome) that determines a particular characteristic
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DOMINANT
Control development of characteristic even if only 1 is present
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RECESSIVE
Control development of a characteristic if dominant allele isn't present
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ALLELE
Different versions of genes
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HOMOZYGOUS
Same alleles in a gene pair
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HETROZYGOUS
Different alleles in a gene pair
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INHERITANCE
To receive genes or characteristics from a parent
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CYSTIC FIBROSIS
Produces too much mucus in the airways & is genetic so you can only have it with both recessive genes
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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
The system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glands.
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AEROBIC RESPIRATION
Respiration using oxygen
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ARTERIES
Large blood vessel with narrow lumen and thick elastic walls. (Carries blood away from lungs)
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BLOOD PRESSURE
Pressure of blood in arteries and veins
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CHOLESTRAL
A type of fat that builds up in the arteries
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HEART DISEASE
Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart's muscle, valves or rhyt
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FIT
How much physical activity you're capable of doing & how quickly body recovers after
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HEALTHY
Free from infection
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CARBON MONOXIDE
a colourless, odourless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration
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THROMBOSIS
Blood clot
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CARBOHYDRATES
Foods that provide energy
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CARDIOVASCULAR EFFICIENCY
A measure of how well heart copes with cardiovascular exercise
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FAT
A wide group of compounds that provide the body with energy & insulation
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PROTEIN
Large organic compounds made up of amino acids; needed in diet for growth and repair
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VITAMINS
any of a group of organic compounds which are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body
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1ST CLASS PROTEIN
Proteins from animals e.g. meat, fish
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2ND CLASS PROTEIN
Protein made from plants
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ESSENTIAL PROTEINS
Amino acids taken by eating food (Body cannot produce them)
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NON-ESSENTIAL PROTEINS
Amino acids made by body
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KWASHIORKOR
Illness caused by protein deficiency due to lack of food
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NON INFECTIOUS DISEASES
No pathogens are involved
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PATHOGENS
A disease causing a micro-organism
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BENIGN
A growth or tumour that isn't usually dangerous to health; not progressive or recurrent as does not spread all over body. e.g wart
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MALIGNANT
Tumour that becomes progressively worse and spreads around the body
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Caused by pathogens which attack and invade the body. e.g. fungi, cholera, protozoa, bacteria
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VECTOR
Mosquito
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HOST
Human
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PARASITE
Organism that lives off another organism
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WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Start to fight the invasion when pathogens enter
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ANTIBODIES
Produced by white blood cells to destroy disease causing micro-organisms
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ANTIGENS
A toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies
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ACTIVE IMMUNITY
The immunity which results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen
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PASSIVE IMMUNITY
The short-term immunity which results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal
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PLACEBO
A medicine or procedure prescribed for the psychological benefit to the patient rather than for any physiological effect
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BLIND TRIAL
Volunteers are unsure whether they have been given the drug or placebo. This eliminates psychological effects
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SENSORY NEURON
Carry nerve impulses from receptors to brain
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RELAY NEURON
Make connections between neurons inside brain & spinal cord
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MOTOR NEURON
Carry nerve impulses from brain to muscles and glands
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REFLEX ACTION
Bypass your brain to give fast automatic responses to protect body from harm
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VOLUNTARY ACTIONS
Under conscious control of brain. You decide how to react
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IRIS
Controls amount of light that enters
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LENS
Focuses light onto retina so rays converge at single point & produce a clear image
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CORNEA
Refracts rays of lights
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PUPIL
The dark circular opening in the centre of the iris of the eye, which varies in size to regulate the amount of light reaching the retina
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RETINA
Contains light sensitive receptors
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BINOCULAR VISION
Front of head and judges distance
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MONOCULAR VISION
At the side of head and each eye is used separate to increase field of view
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ADDICTION
Being abnormally dependent upon something; habit forming
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TOLERANCE
Tolerance refers to a physiological state where the effectiveness of a drug has decreased due to chronic administration. This means that more of the drug will be required to achieve the same effect in the future
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WITHDRAW
onset of symptoms, both physical and mental, when a substance is reduced or not given to the body
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STIMULANTS
Speed up heart & nervous system and increase brain activity
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DEPRESSANTS
Slow down the way that the body works & decrease brain activity
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PAINKILLERS
Reduce pain by blocking nerve impulses
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PERFORMING ENHANCES
Increase muscle development
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HALLUCINOGENS
Disort what is seen and heard
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EMPHYSEMA
Chronic irreversible lung disease caused by smoking
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CARCINOGENS
Cancer causing chemicals
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HOMEOSTASIS
Maintenance of constant internal conditions in the body
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ENZYMES
Protein molecule and biological catalyst found in living organisms that helps chemical reactions to take place
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VASODILATION
Widening of blood vessels to increase heat loss from the surface of the skin
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VASOCONSTRICTION
Narrowing of blood vessels to reduce heat loss from the surface of the skin
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HYPOTHERMIA
The condition of having an abnormally (typically dangerously) low body temperature
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DEHYDRATION
The process of losing or removing water or moisture. A condition caused by the excessive loss of water from the body, which causes a rise in blood sodium levels. Since dehydration is most often caused by excessive sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea
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NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
Changes in environment triggers a response that counteracts changes. Only works if everything is internally balanced
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HORMONES
Chemical messenger that travels around the body in the blood to affect the target organs
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INSULIN
Hormone produced by pancreas which controls blood glucose concentrations
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DIABETES
Disease called by the failure to control blood sugar levels due to inability of pancreas to secrete insulin
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GLUCOSE
a simple sugar which is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates
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GLYCOGEN
a substance deposited in bodily tissues as a store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide which forms glucose on hydrolysis
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PLANT HORMONES
Controls development of plant e.g Auxin
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AUXIN
Plant hormone that affects development and growth
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GEOTROPISM
Gravity, growth
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PHOTOTROPISM
Lghti
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ROOTING POWDER
Encourages growth of roots in stem cuttings so many plants can be obtained from one
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FRUIT RIPENING HORMONE
Causes fruits to rippen
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CONTROL OF DORMACY
Speed up or slow down plant growth & bud development
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SELECTIVE WEEDKILLERS
Disrupt growth plants & targets plants without harming others
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ANTIBIOTICS
Medication to kill bacterial pathogens inside the body
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GENE
Small section of DNA
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RECEPTOR
Part of nervous system that detects a stimulus
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VIRUS
Tiny microorganism with simple structures
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GENOTYPE
Genetic make-up of a individual,letters
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PHENOTYPE
Characteristic expressed
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Coil of DNA made up of genes found in the nucleus of plant/animal cells

Back

CHROMOSOMES

Card 3

Front

Section of DNA (in a chromosome) that determines a particular characteristic

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Control development of characteristic even if only 1 is present

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Control development of a characteristic if dominant allele isn't present

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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