B1 PAPER

  • Created by: tagreid
  • Created on: 10-11-18 14:46
What are the features of an animal cell ?
Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell membrane, Ribosomes, mitochondria
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What are the features of a plant cell ?
Cell wall, Chloroplast and sap vacoule
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What does the Nucleus do ?
Controls the cell activity. Contains the genetic material of the cell in the form of chromosomes.
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What is the Cell Membrane ?
Controls whatever enters leaves. Separates the cell from the outside environment
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What is Cytoplasm ?
the jelly-like fluid where the chemical reactions happen
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What are Ribosomes?
After they leave the nucleus they synthesise or make proteins from the DNA
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What is the Vacuole ?
Is in the middle of plant cells. It has sugars and salts which you can't find nowhere else. They contain materials like water.
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what is the chloroplast ?
Contains chlorophyll which is green. This absorbs the light and is where photosynthesis occurs.
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What is the Mitochondria ?
This produces ATP which gives the cell energy
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What is Chlorophyll ?
This is the green pigment and through photosynthesis it provides food for the cell
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What is the Cell wall ?
Is made of a material called cellulose and provides shape and protection to the cell.
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What are eukaryotes and Prokaryotes ?
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and are more complicated, Prokaryotes have no nucleus and are built more complex
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What is a bacterial cell ?
A single celled living organism. Flagella=helps them move around. Slime capsule on the outside of their cell wall. Plasmid=extra circular bit of genetic material
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What are the advantages of a light microscope ?
You can : view coloured images, cheap, can be used almost anywhere, magnify live specimins
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what are the disadvantages of you a light microscope ?
You can : only zoom up to x200, low resolution
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what are the advantages of using an electron microscope ?
you can : magnify up to x2,000,000, can produce 2D (TEM) and 3D (SEM) images, very high resolution
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what are the disadvantages of an electron microscope ?
very expensive, cant detect colour, has to be kept in a special room, very large, cant magnify large specimins
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What is Prophase ?
The chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears
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What is Prometaphase ?
the nuclear envelope breaks down and seperates the duplicated genetic material carried into the nucleus of a parent cell into 2 identical daughter cells
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What is Metaphase ?
The chromosomes become attached to spindle fibres and align in the middle
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What is Anaphase ?
The chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle
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What is Telophase ?
The chromosomes move to opposite ends and the two nuclei are formed
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What is Cytokenisis ?
The seperation of the two daughter cells
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What is Cancer ?
This is when there is a mistake in the duplication of the cell and this becomes a disease
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What are Benign tumors ?
It doesn't invade the nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. It grows very large, very fast
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What are Malignant tumors ?
This is referred to as Cancer. This invades the nearby tissues and other parts of the body. The cancer cells can move into the bloodstream and lymph systems
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What is Respiration ?
Respiration is the process of breaking down glucose, to release energy which goes in every living cell
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What is the word equation for Respiration ?
Glucose+Oxygen=Carbon Dioxide+Water
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What is the chemical equation for Respiration ?
C6H12O6+O2=CO2+H2O
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What is Anaerobic Respiration in animals ?
Sometimes animal and plant cells cannot get enough oxygen to carry out respiration. But they still need obtain energy to stay alive so in emergency reactions they use Anaerobic Respiration
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What is the word equation for Anaerobic Respiration ?
Enzymes+Glucose=Carbon Dioxide+Lactic acid/Ethanol
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What are the two problems with Anaerobic Respiration ?
It produces lactic acid which is a poisonus waste product. It also releases much less energy from glucose compared to aerobic respiration
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What is Photosynthesis ?
When green plants and other organisms use sunlight to synthesise nutrients from carbon dioxide and water
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How can you speed up Photosynthesis ?
Light intensity, Increasing the CO2, Increasing the tempreture, With thinner leaves
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What is an enzyme ?
A biological catalyst
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Define Optimum
Maximum
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Define denature ?
When the enzymes change shape and don't work
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What is a stomata ?
Small holes/pores on the underside of the leaf which allows gases to move in or out of the cell
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How are leaves adapted for diffusion ?
Thinner leaves mean that the distance the gases have to travel. There are a lot of stomata on the underside of the leaf.
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What is Diffusion ?
A passive process which means it requires no energy. Molecules diffuse until they are evenly spread apart and equilibrium is reached
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What is Transpiration ?
When water molecules travel from the root to the rest of the plant
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What is a Xylem vessel ?
It transports water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the root and helps to form the woody element in the stem
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What is a Phloem vessel ?
It transports simple sugars and other metabolic products downwards from the leaves
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What is a Potometer ?
They are used to measure the uptake of water by the plants in different conditions
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How does Active transport work in a cell ?
It allows cells to move substances from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
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Where can you find Enzymes ?
They can be found in your digestive system and washing up powder
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How does the Digestive system work ?
Mouth, Oesophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Pancreas/Liver, Large intestine, Rectum, Anus
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What is Amalyse ?
Turns Starch into Sugar
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What is Protease ?
Turns Proteins into Amino acids
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What is Lipase ?
Turns Fats into Fatty acids and Glycerol
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What is the job of Bile ?
Emulsifies fat into smaller droplets so it can be easily digested
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Why is the stomach acidic ?
To break down the food and kill bacteria
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What happens in the Small Intestine ?
Majority of the nutrient absorbtion happens
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What produces enzymes ?
The pancreas
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What affects enzyme activity ?
PH, Concentration of enzymes, Tempreture, Surface area, Concentration of food
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What are arteries ?
They are in your wrist and are big vessels with blood under high pressure
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What are the veins ?
The veins on the back of your hand are also big but the blood is under much lower pressure
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What are the Capillaries ?
Capillaries in your fingers are tiny so there is much less blood to flow
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What two organs make up the Circulatory System ?
Heart and blood vessels
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What is a pathogen ?
Harmful micro-organisms that can cause disease
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What is a communicable disease ?
A disease that is caused by pathogens and can be spread
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What is a non-communicable disease ?
(mainly mental illnesses) A disease not caused by pathogens and cannot be spread
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In what ways can someone be ill ?
If pathogens enter the body, The environment or lifestyle, Genetics or inheritance
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How can pathogens be spread ?
Saliva, Vomiting, Coughing, Sneezing, Kissing, Animals, Sexual Intercourse, Open wounds, Dirty water or any bodily fluids
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What is Binary Fission ?
This is how bacteria divides
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How did Cholera come about ?
By people drinking contaminated water filled with pathogens
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How did Ebola begin ?
Ebola spread by bush meat and the blood getting into the system
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What is a vector ?
Any meat that isn't chicken lamb sheep or goat
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How does a vaccine work ?
When you get injected the pathogens are alive but weakened. Memory (white) blood cells produce the right antibodies to fit the antigen to kill the pathogens so even if the bacteria strikes years later the person is still safe
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How are monoclonal antibodies produced ?
An antigen is injected into a mouse. The mouse natrually produces lymphocytes which produce antibodies to fit the antigen. Spleen cells which produce lymphocytes are removed in an operation.
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How are monoclonal antibodies produced PT.2 ?
The spleen cells are fused with cancerous white blood cells called myeloma cells to form hybridoma cells which divide indefinatly. These hybridoma cells divide and produce millions of monoclonal antibodies specific to the original antigen
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What is an antigen ?
A foreign organism that gets into the body and triggers an immune response
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What is a lymphocyte ?
A white blood cell which attack pathogens by producing antibodies
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What is a monoclonal antibodies ?
Identical copies of an antibody produced by fusing a spleen cell with a cancerous white blood cell which can be designed to bind to any substances
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How does a pregnancy test work ?
Urine passes through the reaction zone. HGC hormone sticks to the mobile HGC antibody. This passes up the stick and now the HGC hormone sticks to
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Cell wall, Chloroplast and sap vacoule

Back

What are the features of a plant cell ?

Card 3

Front

Controls the cell activity. Contains the genetic material of the cell in the form of chromosomes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Controls whatever enters leaves. Separates the cell from the outside environment

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the jelly-like fluid where the chemical reactions happen

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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