B1 Nervous system and hormones

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what is a stimulus and
a change in the environment which you may need to react to
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go through the nervous system
sensory neurones, relay neurones, motor neurones, effectors
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what is the CNS
central nervous system, where all the information from the sense organs is sent
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what do effectors do
(muscles and glands) muscles contract and glands secrete hormones
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what happens at a synapse
the nerve signal is transferred by chemicals which diffuse across the gap, the chemicals then set off a new electrical signal in the next neurone
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what is a reflex
automatic responses to certain stimuli
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what is the passage of information in a reflex (from receptor to effector) called
reflex arc
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whats different in a reflex compared to a normal nervous response
reflexes bypass your concious brain when a quick response is essential
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what is a hormone
hormones are chemical messengers which travel in the blood to activate target cells
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how do they travel around + where do they travel to
carried in the blood plasma, travel to other parts of the body but only affect target cells
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3 comparisons between nerves and hormones
nerves: very fast action, act for a short time, act on precise area hormones: slower action, act for a long time, act in a more general way
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what is the menstrual cycle
the monthly release of an egg from a womans ovaries, and the build up and breakdown of the protective lining in the uterus
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what happens 1-4 days
lining of the uterus breaks down
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what happens 4-14 days
lining of the uterus builds up
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what happens on day 14
egg released
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what happens 14-28 days
lining of the uterus is maintained
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what does ******* outrageous lads stand for
FSH , Oestrogen , LH
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what does FSH do and where is it produced
causes an egg to mature in ovary and stimulates ovaries to produce oestrogen, produced by pituitary gland
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what does oestrogen do + where is it produced
causes pituitary to produce LH and inhibits the further release of FSH, produced in ovaries
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what does LH do + where is it produced
stimulates release of an egg, produced by pituitary gland
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what two hormones does the pill contain
oestrogen and progesterone
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what does oestrogen in the pill do
keeps oestrogen levels high inhibiting the production of FSH
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what does progesterone in the pill do
stimulates the production of thick cervical mucus which prevents sperm getting through and reaching the egg
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why were the doses lowered
concerns of a link between the pill and blood clots
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2 pros for taking the pill
over 99% effective, reduces risk of getting some types of cancer
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3 cons of taking the pill
isnt 100% effective, can cause side effects, doesnt protect against STDs
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what do fertility pills contain
FSH & LH
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1 pro to this
it helps women to get pregnant
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2 cons to this
doesnt always work so can become expensive, too many eggs could be stimulated
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what happens in IVF
collect eggs from womans ovaries, fertilise them in lab with mans sperm and grown into embryos, when embryos are tiny balls of cells, transferred into womans uterus to improve chance of pregnancy
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what is injected before the eggs are collected + why
FSH and LH to stimulate egg release
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pro to IVF
give an infertile couple a child
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3 cons to IVF
some woman have strong reaction to the hormones, reports of increased risk of cancer, multiple births can happen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

go through the nervous system

Back

sensory neurones, relay neurones, motor neurones, effectors

Card 3

Front

what is the CNS

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what do effectors do

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what happens at a synapse

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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