B1 Homeostasis and Drugs

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what is homeostasis
all the functions of the body which try to maintain a constant internal environment
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what needs to be contolled
water content, ion content, temperature, sugar content
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where do excess ions come from
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how are excess ions removed
lost in sweat, kidneys remove the excess from the blood which is then got rid of in urine
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how is water taken in
food and drink
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how is it lost
through the skin as sweat, via the lungs in breath, via the kidneys as urine
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what is urine like on cold days
more urine, pale, more diluted
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what is urine like on hot days
less urine, more concentrated, deeper colour
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what is the temperature the body should be kept at
about 37 degrees Celsius
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where is temperature controlled
thermoregulatory centre in the brain
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how is temperature measured
brain receives messages from the skin that provide information about skin temperature
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how is sugar put in the blood (food type)
eating foods containing carbohydrate puts glucose into the blood from the gut
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how is sugar level reduced
insulin is secreted by the pancreas
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why is there a need for a constant sugar level
so your cells get a constant supply of energy
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what is a drug
substances that alter the chemical reactions that take place in the body
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what are withdrawal symptoms
when someone is addicted to a drug and suffers physical pain when going without taking the drug
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4 examples of addictive drugs
caffeine, nicotine, cocaine and heroin
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what are medicinal drugs
a drug that is medically useful e.g. antibiotics
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what are recreational drugs
drugs that are used for fun, they can be legal or illegal
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what are performance-enhancing drugs
drugs that can improve a person's persons performance in sport
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2 types of performance enhancing drugs
anabolic steroids and stimulants
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what do anabolic steroids do
increase muscle size
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what do stimulants do
increase heart rate
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what negative effect on health do steroids have
high blood pressure
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some drugs are banned by ... some are ... but all are banned by ...
some drugs are banned by law some are prescription only but all are banned by sporting bodies
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2 ethical reasons for performance-enhancing drugs
athletes have the right to make their own decision about whether taking drugs is worth the risk or not, drug-free sport isnt that fair anyway as different athletes have access to different facilities
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2 ethical reasons against performance-enhancing drugs
its unfair if people gain an advantage by taking drugs, athletes may not be fully informed of the serious health risks of the drugs they take
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why don't we know if there is a link between mental health problems and cannabis
the results vary too much
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drug trials: stage 1
drug tested on human cells and tissues in the lab
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drug trials: stage 2
test the drug on live animals (mammals) to see whether the drug is effective, its toxicity and best dosage
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drug trials: stage 3
tested on human volunteers in a clinical trial
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step one of stage 3
tested on healthy volunteers to make sure no harmful side effects, start by giving very low dosage
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step 2 of stage 3
tested on people suffering of the illness and the optimum dose is found
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step 3 of stage 3
to test how well the drug works patients are put into two groups and one is given the drug and one is given a placebo
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step 4 stage 3
clinical trials take place, are either blind or double-blind
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what is a blind trial
when the patient doesnt know whether theyre receiving the real drug or the placebo
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what is a double-blind trial
when the patient nor doctor know whether the patient is receiving the real drug or the placebo, only the manufacturers know
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what is a placebo
a substance that looks and tastes the same as the drug, but doesnt contain any active ingredients
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what is the placebo effect
when the patient expects the treatment to work and so feels better
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an example of a drug not being thoroughly tested
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what was thalidomide intended to be used as
a sleeping pill
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when was it released
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what was it found to be effective for
relieving morning sickness in pregnant women
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what happened as a result of pregnant women using thalidomide
abnormal limb development of their child
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how many babies were affected
10 000
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how many of them survived
about half
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what happened to the drug as a result
it was banned
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why was thalidomide available to pregnant women
it hadnt been tested as a drug for morning sickness so it was not known that it could pass through the placenta and affect the fetus
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what is thalidomide used for now
leprosy and some cancers
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2 categories of recreation drugs
legal, illegal
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what 2 things are hard drugs normally
addictive and more harmful
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what 3 drugs can cause heart and circulatory problems
heroin, ecstasy and cannabis
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4 reasons why drugs are taken
enjoyment, relaxation, stress relief, for inspiration
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why is it usually more complicated than these 4 reasons
factors of the users background or personal life
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3 common opinions on cannabis
a stepping stone, gateway drug, down to genetics
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3 bad things for smoking
causes disease of the heart, blood vessels and lungs, the smoke causes cancer, nicotine is addictive
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4 bad things for alcohol
affects the nervous system and slows down the bodys reactions, too much leads to impaired judgement poor coordination and unconsciousness, excessive drinking can causes liver disease and brain damage, addictive
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why does tobacco and alcohol have a bigger impact than hard drugs in the UK
so many people take them
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what are the economic and social problems with alcohol
NHS has to spend loads on treating people with effects of smoking and drinking
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what needs to be contolled


water content, ion content, temperature, sugar content

Card 3


where do excess ions come from


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


how are excess ions removed


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


how is water taken in


Preview of the front of card 5
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