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  • Created by: devinter
  • Created on: 20-04-16 18:13
why is blood in the arteries under pressure
due to contraction of heart mussels and so that it reaches all parts of the body
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what is blood pressure measured in
systolic and diastolic in mmg
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what does systolic mean
the maximum pressure the heart can give
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what does diastolic mean
blood pressure between heart beats
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what causes an increase in blood pressure
being overweight,stress, high alcohol intake and smocking
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what causes a decrease in blood pressure
regular excersice and a balanced diet
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what is fitness
the ability to do physical activity
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what is health
being free from disease
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what are the different ways heath can be measured
strength,stamina, agility,speed,flexibility and cardiovascular efficiency
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what is cardiovascular efficiency
how well a persons circulatory system works
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what are the consequences of having high blood pressure
can cause blood vessels to burst and damage the brain and kidneys causing a stroke
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what are the consequences of having low blood pressure
Dizziness and fainting as blood to the brain is reduced and poor circulation to fingers and toes
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what is the risk of heart disease caused by
high blood pressure,smoking, eating high levels of salt and saturated fat
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how does cholesterol restrict or block blood flow in vains
it narrows the arteries by the cholesterol forming plaque
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how does smoking increase blood pressure
carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood so the heart rate increase to compensate as well as nicotine increasing heart rate
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how does diet increase the risk of heart
saturated fats lead to a build up in cholesterol(plaque) in arteries and high levels of salt elevate blood pressure
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why does carbon monoxide reduce carrying capability
The red blood cells have hemoglobin and this combines with the carbon monoxide reducing the oxygen carying capabilities
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how do a narrowed coronary arteries and thrombosis increase the risk of heart attacks heart attacks
This may cause a sudden block stopping blood from reaching the heart
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What is thrombosis
blood clots
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what are carbohydrates made from
simple sugars such as glocose
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what are fats made from
fatty acids and glycerol
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what are proteins made from
amino acids
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where are carbohydrates stored
in the liver as glycogen or converted into fats which are stored under the skin or around organs as adipose tissue
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where are proteins stored
They are not stored
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why do teenagers need a high protein diet
they are doing a lot of growing and changing because of purberty
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why in many parts of the world are diets deficient in protein
overpopulation and limited investment in farming methods
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when are proteins used as an energy sourse
when fats and carbohydrates are unavalible
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what can being obese lead to
increase heath risks such as arthritis , heart disease,diabetes and breast cancer
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what is the equation for EAR
body mass in kg x 0.6
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what does EAR calculate
how much protein someone will need daily
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what does EAR not account for
age pregnancy or lactification
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what is BMI
mass in kg (height in m)^2
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what does BMI measure
to determine if you are overweight, normal or underwieght
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What are pathogens
disease causing miroorganisms
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what are infectious diseases caused by
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what is athletes foot caused by
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what causes flu
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what causes cholera
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what causes maleria
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what is a host
a organism in which a parasite lives
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What is a parasite
a organism what feeds on another living organism and causes it harm
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what is a vector
a organism that carries the disease but is not affected by it
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what is a plasmodium
the protozoan that malaria is caused by
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How do vectors spread maleria
The malaria parasite is spread from person to person by vectors (mosquitoes).
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how does knowing the life cycle of a mosquito help control maleria
If the life cycle of a pathogen can be broken, eventually all the individuals of that pathogen will die out, leaving a disease-free population.
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How does skin defend against pathogens
it creates a barrier
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How does blood clotting defend against pathogens
it prevents entry of pathogens
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How does mucus in airways defend against pathogens
its traps the pathogens
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How does hydrocloric acid in the stomach defend against pathogens
it kills the pathogens
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what are infectious diseases
disorders caused by organisms that can be passed from person t9o person
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what are non infectious diseases
they are not caused by pathogens and do not spread from person to person
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what is a benign tumor
They are cells that divide slowly and are harmless
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what is a malignant tumor
they are cells that grow out of control and spread
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what does immunisation do
it gives protection from certain pathogens
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how are pathogens destroyed by the immunity system
engulfed by white blood cells and destroyed by antibodies
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how do pathogens cause symptoms of an infectious diseases
cell damage or by production of pathogens
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what do antibodies lock on to in order to kill the pathogen
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what is passive immunity
where te body receives antibodies
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what is active immunity
were the body creates antibodies
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what are antibiotics
Antibiotics are drugs that kill bacteria, but not viruses
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what are antivirals
Antivirals are drugs that prevent viruses reproducing
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why are specific antibodies needed
as pathogens have unique antigens
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what is immunisation
when a harmless pathogen is given which carries antigens this triggers a response from white blood cells which produce antibodies
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why does immunity remain when you are immunised
as memory cells are produced
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Why do we need to be careful when prescribing antibiotics
to prevent increase in of resistant strains
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what is a double blind trial
a trial where neither the researchers nor the patients know what they are getting
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what is a blind trial
the volunteers do not know which group they are in but the researchers do
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how do animals detect changes in their enviroment
using receptors which generate nerve pulses
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what does the Cornea do
refracts light
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what part does the iris play in the eye
it controls how much light goes into the pupil
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what focuses light into the retiner
the lens
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what part of the eye contains light receptors , some sensitive to light of different colours
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what does the optic nerve do
carries impulses to the brain
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what is the path of the light through the eyeball
it is refracted by the cornea and lens then is bought to focus on the retina
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what does the eye do to focus light from dark to light
accomidation whereLight is focused onto the retina by refraction at the cornea, and by the lens.The lens changes shape to make the fine adjustments needed to produce a sharp image
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advantages for monocular vision
wider field of vision
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advantages of binocular vision
better judgment of distences
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disadvantages for monocular vision
worse judgment of distences
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disadvantages of binocular vision
narrow field of vision
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how does binocular vision help judge distances
by comparing the image from each eye the more similer the object the further away it is
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what are longsighted and shortsighted vision caused by
the lens or eyeball being the wrong shape
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what cause red-green colour blindness
lack of specialised cells in the retina
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what is wrong with your eye if you are short sighted
can't focus properly on distant objects because the lens focuses the sharpest image in front of the retina, instead of on it
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what is the problem if you are long sighted
can't focus properly on near objects because the lens focuses the sharpest image behind the retina, instead of on it
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how would you correct long sightedness
by putting a convex lens in front of the eye
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how would you correct short sightedness
It can be corrected by placing a concave lens in front of the eye
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how does cornea surgery
cutting the cornea altering its shape to correct a persons vision
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where is the central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
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what is the function of the peripheral nervous system
carry impulses from the receptors to the CNS, as well as impulses from the CNS to the effectors
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what does the peripheral consist of
motor and sensory neurons
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what is the purpose of a central nervous system
It gathers information about, and responds to, changes in the environment
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what are nerve impulses
an electrical signal that is carried out by nerve cells called neurons
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how would you describe nerve responses
fast automatic protective responces
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where do nerve impulses happen
along the axon of a nurone
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what is the path along the reflex arc
stimulus->receptor-> sensory neuron -> motor neuron -> effector
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what is a reflective arc
A reflex arc is the nerve pathway which makes such a automatic response eg flame
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how does a sheath help a neuron
acts as an insulator
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why are neurons long
so that they communicate with distant parts of the body
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what are detritus
branched endings of a neuron
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what do detritus connect to
many other neurones
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what is a synapse
the gap between two neurones
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how do neurons travel across a synapse
an electrical signal travels along an axon and triggers the release of chemical transmitters from the nerve ending of the first neurone. These diffuse across the gap and make the second neurone re-transmit the electrical signal
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what class of drugs of is the most dangerous
class A
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what drug carries the lightest penlties
Class c
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what do depressents do
slows down brain activity
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what drug blocks nerve impulses
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what increases brain activity
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what do performance enhancers increase
muscle development
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what are hallucinogens
they distort what is seen and heard
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give examples of a stimulent
nicotine,ecstasy and caffeine
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name an example of a performance enharncer
anaerobic steriods
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what type of drug is an LDS
an hallucinogen
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what type of drug are alcohol,solvents and temazapan
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what effect do depressants have on the synapses
they bind with receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neuron blocking the transmission of the impulses
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that effect do stimulants have on the on the synapses
cause more neurotransmitter to cross synaps
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what can tobacco smocking cause
emphysema,bronchitis, cancer and heart disease
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what part of smoking leads to lack of oxygen and heart disease
carbon monoxide
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what drug in smoking is addictive
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what does to do to a human
irritant and carcinogenic (causes cancer)
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what do the particulate do to the lungs
causes accumulation in lung tissue
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how do you get smokers cough
Normally cilia move to push mucus out of the lungs damaged cells cannot do this, leading to a build-up of mucus
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what are the sort term effects of alcohol in the body
impaired judgment, balance,muscle control as well as blurred vision, drowsiness and increased blood flow to skin
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what are the long term effects of alcohol on the body
liver and brain damage
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why can the liver become damaged as it removes alchol
enzymes in the liver break down alcohol and the toxins produced cause the damage
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how do negative feedback mechanisms used to maintain a constant internal environment
A negative feedback control system responds when conditions change from the ideal or set point and returns conditions to this set point
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what is the normal core temperature of a human
37 celcius
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where do we measure body temp
ear, finger ,mouth or anus
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how do we measure temp
clinical thermometer, sensitive strips, digital recording probes and thermal imaging
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how does sweating increase heat transfer to the environment
by evaporating of sweat as this requires heat so removes heat from skin
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why is 37 degrees the optimum temperature for the body
optimum temp for enzymes
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what is vasodilation
the dilatation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure.
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what is vasoconstriction
the constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure.
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what hormone does the pancreas produce
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what causes type 1 diabetes
the frailer of the pancreas to produce insulin
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how does insulin travel around the body
in the blood stream
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what does insulin control
blood sugar levels
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what is type two diabetes
the person has insulin resistance, meaning their pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body doesn't react properly to insulin
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why can type two diabetes be controlled by diet
you can regulate how much sugar is entering the blood stream and prevent the insulin being overwhelmed
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how do people with type one diabetes get insulin
by injecting themselves with some
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which responses are slower hormone or neverous
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what is a plants growth controlled by
plant hormones
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what does growth towards light increase
plants chance of survival
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what part of the plant is postivly phototropic
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what part of the plant is positively geotropic
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what do the plant hormone auxins do
move the plant through solution involved in response to light and gravity
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how do auxins cause shoots curvature
the shaded part of the plant elongating this section of the plant
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what controls inherited characteristics
chromosomes that are held in the nucleus and carry information in the form of genes
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what causes genetic veriation
mutations gamete formation and fertilisation
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how many pairs of chromosomes do humans have
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what are alleles
different versions of the same gene
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what are the sex chromosomes in a man and woman
man xy woman **
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when are dominant alleles expressed
if present
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when are ressevive allues expressed
when dominant alleles are are absent
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what is the word for two identical allules
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what does heterzgous mean
two different allules
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what is the word for genetic makup
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what does phenotype mean
the characteristics mean
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what are inherited disorders caused by
a faulty allues most of which are ressesive
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what is blood pressure measured in


systolic and diastolic in mmg

Card 3


what does systolic mean


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Card 4


what does diastolic mean


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what causes an increase in blood pressure


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