B1 Chapter 1 - Keeping Healthy

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A healthy diet contains the correct amount of 1.______ and 2._______ of different nutrients. If a person does not get this they risk becoming 3.____________.
1. energy 2. balance 3. malnourished
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How are carbohydrates, proteins and fats used in the body?
To release energy and build cells
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Vitamins and minerals are needed in _____ amounts for the healthy functioning of the body.
small
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What happens when the diet is unbalanced?
A person can become malnourished (overweight or underweight). It could also lead to deficiency diseases or conditions like Type 2 diabetes.
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A person _____ mass when the energy content they take in is less than that which they use/expend.
loses
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Exercise _________ the amount of energy expended by the body.
increases
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Define metabolic rate.
The rate the reactions of the body and cells take place (i.e. the rate of cellular respiration)
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What affects metabolic rate?
The amount of activity a person does; the proportion of muscle to fat in the body; inherited factors.
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The more regularly you exercise, the ____ fit you will tend to become.
more
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A ________ is a microorganism that causes (infectious) disease.
pathogen
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Bacteria and viruses tend to reproduce _______ within the body.
rapidly
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What do bacteria and viruses produce that make us feel ill?
toxins
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_______ reproduce in the bodies cells. This makes them harder to kill because any treatment may also damage the cells. The immune system will usually overcome viruses.
Viruses
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Viruses ______ the cells they reproduce in.
damage
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What defences does the body have against pathogens?
The skin stops pathogens entering the body. Mucus traps pathogens and stomach acid kills them.
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White blood cells called phagocytes may ______ pathogens.
ingest
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White blood cells may produce __________ to counteract the toxins produced by pathogens.
antitoxins
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White blood cells called Lymphocytes may produce proteins called __________ that can destroy bacteria/viruses with the specific antigen that has a complimentary shape to it.
antibodies
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How do antibodies neutralise pathogens?
By binding to pathogens and destroying/ damaging them or by clumping them together so they are easily digested by phagocytes.
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Once the 1. _________ with the correct 2.__________ to kill a particular type of pathogen is identified, they reproduce 3. _______.
1. lymphocyte 2.antibodies 3.quickly
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Antigens released by pathogens stimulate white blood cells to produce __________ which destroy antigens with a complimentary shape.
antibodies
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When you are ______ to a pathogen, the lymphocyte that produces the complimetary shaped antibody to the antigen is produced quickly and fights off the pathogen before it can do any damage.
immune
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The spread of a pathogen can be _______ if a large proportion of the population are immune to it.
reduced
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After realising infection could be spread from person to person, __________ told people told doctors to wash their hands between patients.
Semmelweis
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Some medicines, like pain killers, help to relieve ________ of disease but do not cure it.
symptoms
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Pain killers block _____ ________ to the part of the brain that perceives pain or to the painful part of the body.
nerve impulses
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Alexander 1.________ discovered the first antibiotic, 2.__________ .
1. Flemming 2. penicillin
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________ bacteria should be treated using ________ antibiotics.
Specific
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Antibiotics 1.____ bacteria while others stop their 2.______.
1.kill 2.growth
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Antibiotics have _________ many deaths from infectious bacterial diseases.
prevented
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If an antibiotic is ________/_______ it can result in antibiotic resistance. To prevent this we should not prescribe antibiotics for mild infections and complete the full course of antibiotics.
overused/misused
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Antibiotic resistance occurs due to _______ _________. If an antibiotic is misused or overused, it could kill non-resistant cells but not a resistant form which could go on to reproduce and form a resistant strain of bacteria.
natural selection
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MRSA is a strain of _________ _________ ________ which is resistant to many antibiotics.
antibiotic resistant bacteria
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Why must new antibiotics be developed to treat resistant strains?
Vaccinations and existing antibiotics may not work so people will not be immune and there's no existing treatment so the disease will spread rapidly and could cause and epi/pandemic unless a new treatment is developed.
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What is in a vaccine?
Dead/weakened pathogens, fragments of the pathogen or live pathogens treated to make them harmless.
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How do vaccines make you immune?
They cause the body to produce white blood cells. Once the right type of white blood cell is found, it reproduces quickly. If the pathogen ever enters the body again, the white blood cells can respond quickly and kill it before it does any damage.
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What diseases is the MMR vaccine used to protect children against?
Measles, mumps and rubella
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are carbohydrates, proteins and fats used in the body?

Back

To release energy and build cells

Card 3

Front

Vitamins and minerals are needed in _____ amounts for the healthy functioning of the body.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when the diet is unbalanced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

A person _____ mass when the energy content they take in is less than that which they use/expend.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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