B1 - Biology Key words

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malnourished
The condition when the body does not get a balanced diet
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metabolic rate
The rate at which the reactions of your body take place, particularly cellular reactions
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inherited
passed on from parents to their offspring through genes
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overweight
a person who's body carries excess fat and their MBI is between 25 and 30
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obese
very overweight with a BMI of over 30
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ion
charged particle produced by the loss or gain of electrons
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infectious diseases
disease which can be passed from one person to another
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microorganisms
bacteria, viruses and other organisms that can only be seen using a microscope
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infectious
capable of causing infection
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pathogens
microorganism which causes disease
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bacteria
single-celled microorganisms that can reproduce quickly. Many bacteria are useful - gut bacteria and decomposing bacteria but some can cause disease
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viruses
microorganism which takes over body cells and reproduced rapidly causing disease
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droplet infection
a way of spreading infectious diseases through the tiny droplets full of pathogens, which are expelled from your body when you cough, sneeze or talk.
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direct contact
a way of spreading infectious diseases by skin contact between two people.
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white blood cells
blood cell which is involved in the immune system of the body - engulfing bacteria, making antibodies and making antitoxins
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immune system
the body system which recognises and destroys foreign cells or proteins such as invading pathogens
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antibiotics
drug that destroys bacteria inside the body without damaging human cells
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culture medium
a substance containing the nutrients needed for microorganisms to grow
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agar
the nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured
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mutation
a change in the genetic material of an organism
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natural selection
the process by which evolution takes place. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support so only those which are most suited to their environment - the 'fittest' - will survive to breed and pass on their useful characteristics
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MRSA
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. An antibiotic-resistant bacterium.
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epidemic
when more cases of an infectious disease are recored than would normally be expected
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pandemic
when more cases of a disease are recorded than normal in a number of different countries
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antigen
the unique protein on the surface of a cell. It is recognised by the immune system as 'self' or 'non-self'
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immunisation
giving a vaccine hat allows immunity to develop without exposure to the disease itself
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vaccination
introducing small quantities of dead or inactive pathogens into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens. This makes the person immune to future infection.
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vaccine
The dead or inactive pathogen material used in vaccination
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nervous system
The network of nerve cells and fibres which transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
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impulses
Electrical signals carried along the neutrons
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stimuli
a change in the environment that is detected by sensory receptors
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receptors
special sensory cell that detects changes in the environment
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sense organs
collection of special cells known as receptors which responds to changes in the surroundings - eye, ear
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neurons
basic cell of the nervous system which carries minute electrical impulses around the body
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nerves
bundles of hundreds or even thousands of neurons
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central nervous system (CNS)
the central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord where information is processed
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sensory neurons
neutron which carries impulses from the sensory organs to the CNS
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motor neurons
neurons that carries impulses from the CNS to the effector organs
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effector organs
muscles and glands which respond to impulses from the nervous system
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secreting
releasing chemicals such as hormones or enzymes
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reflexes
rapid automatic response of the nervous system that does not involve conscious thought
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reflex arc
the sense organ, sensory neutron, relay neutron, motor neurone and effector organ which bring about a reflex action
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synapses
a gap between neurone where the transmission of information is chemical rather than electrical
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menstrual cycle
the reproductive cycle in women controlled by hormones
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ovulation
the release of a mature egg from the ovary in the middle of the menstrual cycle
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period
the stage in the menstrual cycle when the lining of the womb is lost
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pituitary gland
small gland in the brain which produces a range of hormones controlling body functions
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ovary
female sex organ which contains the eggs and produces sex hormones during the menstrual cycle
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oestrogen
female sex hormone which stimulates the lining of the womb to build up in preparation for a pregnancy
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Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
a female hormone that stimulates the eggs to mature in the ovaries and the ovaries to produce hormones including oestrogen
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progesterone
female sex hormone used in the contraceptive pill
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oral contraceptive
hormone contraceptive that is taken by mouth
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contraceptive pill
a pill containing female sex hormones which is used to prevent conception
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internal environment
the conditions inside the body
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homeostasis
the maintenance of constant internal body conditions
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urine
the liquid produced by the kidneys containing the metabolic waste product urea along with excess water and salts from the body
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kidneys
organ which filters the blood and removes urea, excess salts and water
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enzyme
protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst. It changes the rate of chemical reactions without being affected itself at the end of the reaction
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pancreas
an organ that produces the hormone insulin and many digestive enzymes
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photosynthesis
the process by which plants make food using carbon dioxide, water and light energy
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phototropism
the response of a plant to light, controlled by auxins
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gravitropism
response of a plant to the force of gravity controlled by auxin
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auxin
a plant hormone that controls the responses of plants to light (phototropism) and to gravity (gravitropism)
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effective
a medicine that cures the disease it is targeting
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safe
a medicine that does not cause any unreasonable side effects while curing a disease
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stable
a medicine which does not break down under normal conditions
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double- blind trial
a drug trial in which neither the patient nor the doctor knows if the patient is recieving the new drug or the placebo
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placebo
a substance used in clinical trials which does not contain any drug at all
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thalidomide
a drug that caused deformities in the fetus when given to pregnant women to prevent morning sickness
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drug
a chemical which causes change in the body. Medical drugs cure disease or relieve symptoms. Recreational drugs alter the state of your mind and/or body.
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withdrawal symptoms
the symptom experienced by a drug addict when they do not get the drug to which they are addicted
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steroids
drug that is used illegally by some athletes to build muscles and improve performance
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adaptations
special feature that makes an organism particularly well suited to the environment where it lives
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herbivores
animal that feeds on plants
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carnivores
animal that eats other animals
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extremophiles
organism which lives in environments that are very extreme, e.g very high or very low temps, high sals levels or high presssures.
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denature
change the shape of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up reaction
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stomata
openings in the leaves of plants (particularly the underside) which allow gases to enter and leave the leaf. They are opened and closed by the guard cells.
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respiration
process by which food molecules are broken down to release energy for cells
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competition
process by which living organisms compete which each other for limited resources such as food, light or reproductive partners.
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territory
an area where an animal lives and feeds, which it may mark out or defend against other animals
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ovipositors
a pointed tube found in many female insects which is used to lay eggs
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indicator species
lichens or insects that are particularly sensitive to pollution and so can be used to indicate changes in the environmental pollution levels
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solar / light energy
energy from the sun or other light source
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biomass
biological material from living or recently living organisms
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pyramid of biomass
a model of the mass of biological material in the organisms at each level of a food chain
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urea
the waste product formed by the breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
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decomposers
microorganism that breaks down waste products and dead bodies
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detritus feeders
microorganism that breaks down waste products and dead bodies
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sewage treatment plants
a site where human waste is broken is broken down using microorganisms
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compost heap
site where garden rubbish and kitchen waste are decomposed by microorganisms
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molecules
particle made up of two or more atoms bonded together
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elements
substance made up of only one type of atom. An element cannot be broken chemically into any simpler substance
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fossil fuels
fuel obtained from long-dead biological material
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carbon cycle
cycling of carbon through the living and non-living world
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combustion
process of burning
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organic waste
waste material from living organisms e.g garden waste
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greenhouse gas
gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, which absorb infared radiated from the Earth, and result in warming up the atmosphere
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genes
a short section of DNA carrying genetic information
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gametes
sex cell which has half the chromosome number of an ordinary cell
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chromosomes
thread-like structure carrying the genetic information found in the nucleus of a cell
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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
the material of inheritance
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asexual reproduction
reproduction that involves only one individual with no fusing of gametes to produce the offspring. The offspring are identical to the parent
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sexual reproduction
reproduction which involves the joining (fusion) of male and female gametes producing genetic variety in the offspring
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clones
offspring produced by asexual reproduction which is identical to its parent organism
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tissue culture
using small groups of cells from a plant to make new plants
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genetically modified
a technique for changing the genetic information of a cell
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adult cell cloning
process in which the nucleus of an adult cell of one animal is fused with an empty egg from another animal. The embryo which results is placed inside the uterus of a third animal to develop
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genetic engineering
a technique for changing the genetic information of a cell
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pesticide
chemical that kills animals
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herbicide
chemical that kills plants
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evolution
the process of slow change in living organisms over long periods of time as those best adapted to survive successfully
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Lamarck
French biologist who developed a theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics
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inheritance of aquired characteristics
Lamarck's theory of how evolution took place
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Darwin
the victorian scientist who developed the theory of evolution by a process of natural selection
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natural classification system
classification system based on the similarities between different living organisms
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kingdoms
the highest group in the classification system e.g animals, plants
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species
a group of organisms with many features in common which can breed successfully producing fertile offspring
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evolutionary trees
model of the evolutionary relationships between different organisms based on their appearance, and increasingly, on DNA evidence
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evolutionary relationships
model of the relationships between organisms, often based on DNA evidence, which suggests how long ago they evolved away from each other and how closely related they are in evolutionary terms
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Card 2

Front

The rate at which the reactions of your body take place, particularly cellular reactions

Back

metabolic rate

Card 3

Front

passed on from parents to their offspring through genes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a person who's body carries excess fat and their MBI is between 25 and 30

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

very overweight with a BMI of over 30

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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