B1 - Biology Key words

HideShow resource information
The condition when the body does not get a balanced diet
1 of 120
metabolic rate
The rate at which the reactions of your body take place, particularly cellular reactions
2 of 120
passed on from parents to their offspring through genes
3 of 120
a person who's body carries excess fat and their MBI is between 25 and 30
4 of 120
very overweight with a BMI of over 30
5 of 120
charged particle produced by the loss or gain of electrons
6 of 120
infectious diseases
disease which can be passed from one person to another
7 of 120
bacteria, viruses and other organisms that can only be seen using a microscope
8 of 120
capable of causing infection
9 of 120
microorganism which causes disease
10 of 120
single-celled microorganisms that can reproduce quickly. Many bacteria are useful - gut bacteria and decomposing bacteria but some can cause disease
11 of 120
microorganism which takes over body cells and reproduced rapidly causing disease
12 of 120
droplet infection
a way of spreading infectious diseases through the tiny droplets full of pathogens, which are expelled from your body when you cough, sneeze or talk.
13 of 120
direct contact
a way of spreading infectious diseases by skin contact between two people.
14 of 120
white blood cells
blood cell which is involved in the immune system of the body - engulfing bacteria, making antibodies and making antitoxins
15 of 120
immune system
the body system which recognises and destroys foreign cells or proteins such as invading pathogens
16 of 120
drug that destroys bacteria inside the body without damaging human cells
17 of 120
culture medium
a substance containing the nutrients needed for microorganisms to grow
18 of 120
the nutrient jelly on which many microorganisms are cultured
19 of 120
a change in the genetic material of an organism
20 of 120
natural selection
the process by which evolution takes place. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support so only those which are most suited to their environment - the 'fittest' - will survive to breed and pass on their useful characteristics
21 of 120
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. An antibiotic-resistant bacterium.
22 of 120
when more cases of an infectious disease are recored than would normally be expected
23 of 120
when more cases of a disease are recorded than normal in a number of different countries
24 of 120
the unique protein on the surface of a cell. It is recognised by the immune system as 'self' or 'non-self'
25 of 120
giving a vaccine hat allows immunity to develop without exposure to the disease itself
26 of 120
introducing small quantities of dead or inactive pathogens into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens. This makes the person immune to future infection.
27 of 120
The dead or inactive pathogen material used in vaccination
28 of 120
nervous system
The network of nerve cells and fibres which transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
29 of 120
Electrical signals carried along the neutrons
30 of 120
a change in the environment that is detected by sensory receptors
31 of 120
special sensory cell that detects changes in the environment
32 of 120
sense organs
collection of special cells known as receptors which responds to changes in the surroundings - eye, ear
33 of 120
basic cell of the nervous system which carries minute electrical impulses around the body
34 of 120
bundles of hundreds or even thousands of neurons
35 of 120
central nervous system (CNS)
the central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord where information is processed
36 of 120
sensory neurons
neutron which carries impulses from the sensory organs to the CNS
37 of 120
motor neurons
neurons that carries impulses from the CNS to the effector organs
38 of 120
effector organs
muscles and glands which respond to impulses from the nervous system
39 of 120
releasing chemicals such as hormones or enzymes
40 of 120
rapid automatic response of the nervous system that does not involve conscious thought
41 of 120
reflex arc
the sense organ, sensory neutron, relay neutron, motor neurone and effector organ which bring about a reflex action
42 of 120
a gap between neurone where the transmission of information is chemical rather than electrical
43 of 120
menstrual cycle
the reproductive cycle in women controlled by hormones
44 of 120
the release of a mature egg from the ovary in the middle of the menstrual cycle
45 of 120
the stage in the menstrual cycle when the lining of the womb is lost
46 of 120
pituitary gland
small gland in the brain which produces a range of hormones controlling body functions
47 of 120
female sex organ which contains the eggs and produces sex hormones during the menstrual cycle
48 of 120
female sex hormone which stimulates the lining of the womb to build up in preparation for a pregnancy
49 of 120
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
a female hormone that stimulates the eggs to mature in the ovaries and the ovaries to produce hormones including oestrogen
50 of 120
female sex hormone used in the contraceptive pill
51 of 120
oral contraceptive
hormone contraceptive that is taken by mouth
52 of 120
contraceptive pill
a pill containing female sex hormones which is used to prevent conception
53 of 120
internal environment
the conditions inside the body
54 of 120
the maintenance of constant internal body conditions
55 of 120
the liquid produced by the kidneys containing the metabolic waste product urea along with excess water and salts from the body
56 of 120
organ which filters the blood and removes urea, excess salts and water
57 of 120
protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst. It changes the rate of chemical reactions without being affected itself at the end of the reaction
58 of 120
an organ that produces the hormone insulin and many digestive enzymes
59 of 120
the process by which plants make food using carbon dioxide, water and light energy
60 of 120
the response of a plant to light, controlled by auxins
61 of 120
response of a plant to the force of gravity controlled by auxin
62 of 120
a plant hormone that controls the responses of plants to light (phototropism) and to gravity (gravitropism)
63 of 120
a medicine that cures the disease it is targeting
64 of 120
a medicine that does not cause any unreasonable side effects while curing a disease
65 of 120
a medicine which does not break down under normal conditions
66 of 120
double- blind trial
a drug trial in which neither the patient nor the doctor knows if the patient is recieving the new drug or the placebo
67 of 120
a substance used in clinical trials which does not contain any drug at all
68 of 120
a drug that caused deformities in the fetus when given to pregnant women to prevent morning sickness
69 of 120
a chemical which causes change in the body. Medical drugs cure disease or relieve symptoms. Recreational drugs alter the state of your mind and/or body.
70 of 120
withdrawal symptoms
the symptom experienced by a drug addict when they do not get the drug to which they are addicted
71 of 120
drug that is used illegally by some athletes to build muscles and improve performance
72 of 120
special feature that makes an organism particularly well suited to the environment where it lives
73 of 120
animal that feeds on plants
74 of 120
animal that eats other animals
75 of 120
organism which lives in environments that are very extreme, e.g very high or very low temps, high sals levels or high presssures.
76 of 120
change the shape of an enzyme so that it can no longer speed up reaction
77 of 120
openings in the leaves of plants (particularly the underside) which allow gases to enter and leave the leaf. They are opened and closed by the guard cells.
78 of 120
process by which food molecules are broken down to release energy for cells
79 of 120
process by which living organisms compete which each other for limited resources such as food, light or reproductive partners.
80 of 120
an area where an animal lives and feeds, which it may mark out or defend against other animals
81 of 120
a pointed tube found in many female insects which is used to lay eggs
82 of 120
indicator species
lichens or insects that are particularly sensitive to pollution and so can be used to indicate changes in the environmental pollution levels
83 of 120
solar / light energy
energy from the sun or other light source
84 of 120
biological material from living or recently living organisms
85 of 120
pyramid of biomass
a model of the mass of biological material in the organisms at each level of a food chain
86 of 120
the waste product formed by the breakdown of excess amino acids in the liver
87 of 120
microorganism that breaks down waste products and dead bodies
88 of 120
detritus feeders
microorganism that breaks down waste products and dead bodies
89 of 120
sewage treatment plants
a site where human waste is broken is broken down using microorganisms
90 of 120
compost heap
site where garden rubbish and kitchen waste are decomposed by microorganisms
91 of 120
particle made up of two or more atoms bonded together
92 of 120
substance made up of only one type of atom. An element cannot be broken chemically into any simpler substance
93 of 120
fossil fuels
fuel obtained from long-dead biological material
94 of 120
carbon cycle
cycling of carbon through the living and non-living world
95 of 120
process of burning
96 of 120
organic waste
waste material from living organisms e.g garden waste
97 of 120
greenhouse gas
gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, which absorb infared radiated from the Earth, and result in warming up the atmosphere
98 of 120
a short section of DNA carrying genetic information
99 of 120
sex cell which has half the chromosome number of an ordinary cell
100 of 120
thread-like structure carrying the genetic information found in the nucleus of a cell
101 of 120
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
the material of inheritance
102 of 120
asexual reproduction
reproduction that involves only one individual with no fusing of gametes to produce the offspring. The offspring are identical to the parent
103 of 120
sexual reproduction
reproduction which involves the joining (fusion) of male and female gametes producing genetic variety in the offspring
104 of 120
offspring produced by asexual reproduction which is identical to its parent organism
105 of 120
tissue culture
using small groups of cells from a plant to make new plants
106 of 120
genetically modified
a technique for changing the genetic information of a cell
107 of 120
adult cell cloning
process in which the nucleus of an adult cell of one animal is fused with an empty egg from another animal. The embryo which results is placed inside the uterus of a third animal to develop
108 of 120
genetic engineering
a technique for changing the genetic information of a cell
109 of 120
chemical that kills animals
110 of 120
chemical that kills plants
111 of 120
the process of slow change in living organisms over long periods of time as those best adapted to survive successfully
112 of 120
French biologist who developed a theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics
113 of 120
inheritance of aquired characteristics
Lamarck's theory of how evolution took place
114 of 120
the victorian scientist who developed the theory of evolution by a process of natural selection
115 of 120
natural classification system
classification system based on the similarities between different living organisms
116 of 120
the highest group in the classification system e.g animals, plants
117 of 120
a group of organisms with many features in common which can breed successfully producing fertile offspring
118 of 120
evolutionary trees
model of the evolutionary relationships between different organisms based on their appearance, and increasingly, on DNA evidence
119 of 120
evolutionary relationships
model of the relationships between organisms, often based on DNA evidence, which suggests how long ago they evolved away from each other and how closely related they are in evolutionary terms
120 of 120

Other cards in this set

Card 2


The rate at which the reactions of your body take place, particularly cellular reactions


metabolic rate

Card 3


passed on from parents to their offspring through genes


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


a person who's body carries excess fat and their MBI is between 25 and 30


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


very overweight with a BMI of over 30


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Whole of B1 resources »