B1, B2, B3 UPDATED!!

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describe the factors that increase blood pressure
stress / being overweight / smoking / high alcohol intake
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explain possible consequences of having high blood pressure
kidney damage & strokes
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describe factors that decrease blood pressure
exercise / balanced diet
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explain possible consequences of having low blood pressure
fainting
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what is the difference between fitness and health?
fitness = the ability to do physical activity // health = free from disease
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explain how smoking increases blood pressure
1) carbon monoxide reduces amount of oxygen that rbc can carry 2) heart rate increases to compensate +NICOTINE INCREASES HEART RATE!
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explain how diet can lead to heart disease
saturated fats build up cholesterol in arteries & high salt levels elevate blood pressure
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how can narrowed arteries with thrombosis increase risk of heart attack?
arteries are blocked due to high fat diet
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analyse different ways of measuring fitness
cardiovascular efficiency / stamina / flexibility
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why is Kwashiorkor common in developing countries?
overpopulation / limited investment in agricultural techniques
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How do you calculate EAR?
0.6 x body mass in kg
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what are carbs, fats and proteins made up of ??
carbs = simple sugars // protein = amino acids // fats = glycerol & fatty acids
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describe the difference between first and second class proteins
1st class = animal origins because they contain all essential amino acids that can't be made by body // 2nd class = plant proteins
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what does EAR depend on?
age, pregnancy&lactation
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how to calculate BMI?
mass/height
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recall the meaning of the term parasite and host
parasite = organism that lives off other organisms // host = the organism the parasite lives off
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how do vectors spread disease? (malaria)
1) vector sucks blood from human 2) if there r malaria parasites, they mate&move from gut to salivary glands 3) mosquito bites someone else and passes parasites on 4) parasites move to liver to reproduce 5) new gen migrates to blood and replicates
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how do pathogens cause symptoms of an infectious disease?
they attack and invade the body
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explain the difference between passive and active immunity
passive = receive antibodies // active = make own antibodies
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describe the process of immunisation
1) harmless pathogen given which carries antigens 2) antigens trigger immune response by wbc which make antibodies 3) immunity remains (memory cells produced)
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describe benefits and risks of immunisation
+ protects against diseases + if every1 is done, disease dies out eventually // - could have bad reaction - not 100% safe
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describe how new treatments are tested using animals, human tissue & computer models
animals - see how affects living organisms // computer models - how it affects cells // human tissue - how it affects human cells
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why are blind and db trials used in testing new drugs against placebos or the best existing treatment
dbt cannot influence // bt eliminates psychological factors
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How does binocular vision help to judge distances?
By comparing images from each eye - the more similar the objects, the further away they are
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what is the cause of red-green colourblindness?
lack of specialised cells in retina
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describe the pathway of light in eyeball
Refracted by cornea and lens and brought to focus on retina
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how is long/short sight caused?
eyeball or lens wrong shape
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how are neurones adapted to their function?
insulating sheath speeds up nerve impulse // dentrites let single neurone act on many muscle fibres
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Explain how long/short sight can be corrected...
corneal surgery, different lenses or contact lenses
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functions of main parts of eye
cornea = refracts light / iris = controls amount of light / lens = focuses light on retina / retina = contains light receptors / optic nerve = carries impulses to brain
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explain the basis of the legal classification of drugs:
class A = most dangerous with heaviest penalties // class C = least dangerous with lightest penalties
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where are nerve impulses passed along?
the axon of a neurone
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synapses
1) electrical impulse travels down neurone until synapse 2) transmitter substance diffuses across synapse 3) transmitter binds with receptor molecules on next neurone, causing impulse to be initiated in that neurone.
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how do negative feedback mechanisms used to maintain a constant internal environment?
the brain switches it vice versa
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describe how the liver can become damaged as it removes alcohol
enzymes in liver breakdown alcohol / toxic products of alcohol breakdown cause liver damage
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why does damage to epithelial cells lead to a 'smokers cough'?
cilia cannot remove mucus
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explain how sweating releases heat into environment
blood vessels widen causing blood to flow closer to skin, so heat is transferred. the evaporation of sweat needs heat energy to be removed from skin.
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what is the temp that enzymes work best at?
37 degrees celcius
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what does insulin do?
controls blood sugar levels
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why do high temps cause heat stroke and dehydration?
too much water loss
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explain how vasodilation and vasoconstriction increase or reduce heat transfer to environment
by radiation
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explain why responses controlled by hormones are usually slower than responses controlled by the nervous system
hormones travel a lot slower around the body
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roots and shoots are....??
roots = positively geotropic but negatively phototropic // shoots = positively phototropic but negatively geotropic
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how does auxin bring about shoot curvature in terms of cell elongation?
1) hormone in sunlight dies 2) shaded hormone works, causing elongation 3) shoot bends towards light
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the uses of plant hormones
selective weedkillers - disrupt growth pattern of target plants w/o harming actual plants // control of dormancy - speed or slow growth // fruit ripening - speed or slow the ripening of fruit
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what are alleles?
different versions of the same gene
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genetic terms:
homozygous - 2 identical alleles // heterozygous - 2 different alleles // genotype - genetic makeup // phenotype - characteristics expressed
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how are inherited disorders caused?
faulty alleles/genes, most of which are recessive
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chromosome numbers
most body cells have same no. but varies between species.
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dominant and recessive characteristics
dominant alleles expressed if present // recessive expressed if dominant absent
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causes of genetic variation
fertilisation / mutations / gamete formation
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why is it hard to put organisms into distinct groups?
because life is a continuous spectrum
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define species
a group of organisms which are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring
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why is the binomial system so important?
it's the international basis of naming species
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hybrids
are not fertile
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DNA sequencing...
...has helped understand classification. Organisms that are closely related have high degree of dna sequence similarity
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what do pyramids of biomass show
the dry mass of living material at each stage of a food chain
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explain how some energy is transferred to less useful forms at each stage
respiration / egestion / excretion
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why is it hard to construct pyramids?
organisms may belong to more than one trophic level
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how is carbon recycled in nature?
marine organisms make shells of carbonates / shells become limestone / carbon returns to air as co2 during volcanic eruption / oceans absorb co2 acting as carbon sinks
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why are similar animals in same habitat in close competition?
same ecological niche
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what is ecological niche?
to occupy the same place and function
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explain how counter-current heat exchange systems minimise heat loss in penguins
warm blood flows past cold blood leaving feet, warming it up. warmed blood re-enters rest of body, not affecting core temp
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what are specialists?
well suited to only certain habitats
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what are generalists?
can live in range of habitats but are easily out-competed
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why are cycles of population for predator and prey out of phase?
because of cause and effect - e.g. when lots of hares, lynx have more food so breed. but then eat hares, lynx go down. with less food, fox numbers go down.
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what is a mutualistic relationship?
a relationship from which both organisms benefit e.g. oxpecker and buffalo
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adaptations to dry environments
find somewhere cool / shed fur / swim / panting
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how do cacti cope with lack of water?
long roots to reach water / thick waxy cuticle to reduce water loss / spines reduce water loss
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adaptations to cold environments
well insulated / small surface area to volume ratio / hibernation / migration
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polar bear in cold environments
large feet to spread weight / thick fur / powerful legs / insulating blubber under skin
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consequence of exponential growth?
demands aren't sustainable
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define carbon footprint
the amount of greenhouse gases a person is responsible for emitting
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how can pollution be measured?
by direct measurement of pollutant levels / by measuring occurrence of indicator species
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Darwin's theory of evolution
presence of natural variation / competition for limited resources / survival of the fittest / inheritance of 'successful' adaptations
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why is this theory of natural selection now widely accepted?
it explains wide range of observations // has been tested and discussed
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why was Lamarck's theory discredited?
his explanation didn't have a genetic basis
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why do changes brought about by natural selection cause formation of new species?
because they're controlled by genes and are passed onto future gens
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how do presence/absence of indicator species help to indicate levels of pollution?
water - waterlouse, sludgeworm, rat-tailed maggot // air pollution - lichen
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causes of global warming
burning fossil fuels / CFCs / deforestation / increasing population
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consequences of global warming & acid rain
flooding / melting of polar ice caps / climate change // rocks dissolving, destruction of forests
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explain reasons for conservation programmes
protect human food supply / protect indigenous people / ensure minimal damage to food chains
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why are species at risk of extinction if there isn't enough variation?
one disease could wipe out all
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uses of whales
cosmetics, oil, tourist attractions and food
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describe issues arising with keeping whales in captivity
lack of freedom / used for entertainment and research
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how can fishstock and woodland be sustained and developed?
education, quotas on fishing & re-planting of woodland
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where are proteins made?
CYTOPLASM (ribosomes)! A copy of the gene is needed because the gene itself cannot leave the nucleus
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why do liver and muscle cells have large amounts of mitochondria?
they have a high energy requirement
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what are ribosomes
the site of protein synthesis
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base pairings
A&T // G&C
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why are new discoveries not accepted immediately?
they need to be tested and repeated by other scientists
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how did watson and crick use data from other scientists to build a model of dna?
x-ray data to show there were 2 chains wound in a helix / data indicating that bases occurred in pairs
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what are proteins?
long chains of amino acids
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functions of proteins
enzymes / hormones / carrier molecules / structural
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what are enzymes
biological catalysts --> they have high specificity for their substrate
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Mutations occur...
...spontaneously but can be made to occur more often by radiation or chemicals // they are HARMFUL but MAY BE BENEFICIAL
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what does anaerobic respiration produce
lactic acid - this accumulates in muscles causing pain and fatigue
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symbol equation for aerobic respiration
c6h12o6 + 6o2 --> 6co2 + 6h2o
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explain how enzyme activity is affected by pH and temp..
lower collision rates @ low temps / denaturation at pH extremes / denaturing is irreversable / changes shape of active site
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anaerobic respiration releases much less... what??
energy per glucose molecule than aerobic
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explain fatigue in terms of lactic acid build up
hard exercise causes lack of o2 in cells / incomplete glucose breakdown / continued panting replaces o2 allowing aerobic / increased heart rate ensures blood carries lactic acid away to liver
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new cells for growth are made by...?
mitosis
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advantages of being multicellular
allows complex / allows cell differentiation / allows larger organism
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in mitosis the chormosomes...
line up along centre of cell / divide / copies move to opposite poles of cell
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why does the heart's left ventricle have a thicker muscle wall?
pumps blood @ higher pressure to whole body
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describe the function of plasma
transports substances around the body
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1 advantage of having a double circulatory system
higher pressures therefore greater rate of flow to tissues
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gametes are...
haploid
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why are new cells for growth made in mitosis genetically identical?
no other parents involved
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say how dna replication happens
'unzipping' to form single strands / new double strands forming complementary base pairing
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explain why DNA must replicate itself before dividing
so new cell will have a copy of all chromosomes
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how is the rbc adapted to its size?
small&flexible to pass through narrow vessels / no nucleus so packed with haemoglobin
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gametes are produced by...?
meiosis
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how is sperm cell adapted to its function?
many mitochondria to provide energy / acrosome releases enzymes to digest egg membrane
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what does interbreeding cause?
health issues
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principles of genetic engineering
1) gene chosen 2) gene isolated and removed 3) gene inserted 4) gene replicates when organism replicates
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advantages and risks of GE
+ organisms w desired made rapidly // - may have unexpected harmful effects
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explain the difference between adult and embryonic stem cells
adult = limited to turn into cell types from which they came from // embryonic = can become ANY body cell
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what do bacterial cells lack?
a 'true' nucleus / mitochondria / chloroplasts
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issues arising from stem cell research
life is sacred and shouldn't be experimented on
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uses of cloning
human products / stem cells / desirable characteristics
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what is gene therapy?
changing someone's gene in attempt to cure disorders
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why is gene therapy involving gametes controversial?
genetic changes affect all future gens
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ethical dilemmas of cloning
unreliable / limited life span / religious views say it's wrong / effect on mental development is unknown
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why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals?
plant cells retain ability to differentiate whereas animals lose this
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benefits and risks of cloning
+ sex/timing controlled +same characteristics // - reduces genetic variation - one disease wipes out all
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what is ATP? why do foetuses need it??
it powers reactions within cells - foetuses are made of cells which need lots of reactions to take place for metabolism
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how does the body destroy antigens?
antibodies destroy the antigen which is then engulfed and digested by macrophages
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tissue culture steps..
1) choose parent w/ desired characteristics 2) scrape off small bits into beakers containing nutrients & hormones. do this aseptically. 3) genetically identical plantlets will grow.
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explain possible consequences of having high blood pressure

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kidney damage & strokes

Card 3

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describe factors that decrease blood pressure

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Card 4

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explain possible consequences of having low blood pressure

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Card 5

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what is the difference between fitness and health?

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