B1

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  • Created by: cemcgloin
  • Created on: 06-03-16 11:54
Describe the left side of the circulatory system
1. The pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood to the left atrium in the heart. 2. The blood goes through the left ventricles then is carried by the aorta to the capillaries around the body.
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Describe the right side of the circulatory system
1. Deoxygenated blood id carried from the capillaries in the body to the right atrium in the heart by the vena cava. 2. The blood goes through the right ventricle 3. Blood is pumped by the pulmonary artery to the capillaries in the lungs.
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What is health?
Being free from infectious disease.
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What is being fit?
How much physical activity you are capable of doing and how quickly your body can recover.
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What factors can increase blood pressure?
Smoking, excess alcohol, excess weight, high levels of salt, high stress levels, high levels of unsaturated fats.
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How can smoking increase blood pressure?
1. Carbon monoxide produced reduces the ability of RBC's to carry oxygen. So the heart has to pump faster to make up for the low oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. 2. Nicotine has a direct effect on the heart causing it to beat faster.
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How can excess weight increase blood pressure?
It puts strain on the heart that can lead to high BP.
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How can eating high levels of saturated fats increase blood pressure?
It leads to a build of cholesterol (plaques) in the arteries and restricts blood flow.
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What happens as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning?
Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin in RBC's preventing them from carrying as much oxygen.
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Why do we need carbohydrates and fat?
For energy
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Why do we need protein?
For growth and repair of tissues
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Why do we need minerals such as iron?
Iron is needed to make haemoglobin in RBC's.
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Why do we need vitamins such as Vitamin C?
Vitamin C is needed to prevent scurvy.
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Why do we need fibre?
To prevent constipation.
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Why do we need water?
To prevent dehydration.
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How do we calculate BMI (Body Mass Index)?
Mass (kg) ÷ Height² (m)
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What are carbohydrates made up of?
Simple sugars such as glucose
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What are fats made up of?
Fatty acids and glycerol.
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What are carbohydrates stored as?
Glycerol in the liver or converted to fats
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What are fats stred as?
Under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue.
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What are proteins?
Long-chain amino acids.
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What are the 2 types of amino acids?
1. Essential Amino Acids- must be taken in by eating food 2. Non-Essential Amino Acids- can be made in the body
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What are first class proteins and what is an example?
Meat and fish are first class proteins because they contain all the different types of amino acids.
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What is Kwashiokor?
It is a protein deficiency disease which causes the muscles to waste because the proteins are used for energy, and the stomach swells because of too much fluid.
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How do we calcualte EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)?
0.6 x Body Mass (kg)
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What do people with Anorexia Nervosa do?
They restrict what they eat and sometimes starve themselves.
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What can Anorexia Nervosa lead to?
Extreme weight loss, poor growth, constipation, abdominal pains, dizzy spells, poor circulation, discoloured skin and osteoporosis.
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What do people with Bulimia Nervosa do?
They make themselves vomit, or take laxatives after eating to get food out of their system before it is digested.
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What are the effects of Bulimia Nervosa?
large weigth fluctuations, sore throat, tooth decay, bad breath, swollen salivery glands and hair loss.
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How are infectious diseases caused?
By microorganisms which attack and invade the body. They spread from one person to another through unhygienic conditions and contact.
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What are uninfectious diseases caused by?
Not by being caught from others 1. poor diet 2. organ malfunction 3. genetic inheritance
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How is cancer caused?
Cancer is a genetic disease caused by mutations in lving cells.
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How can we reduce the likelihood of getting cancer?
1. don't smoke 2. don't drink excess alcohol 3. avoid getting sunburnt 4. eat a healthy diet
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What are the 2 types of tumour? Describe them
Benign: it doesn't spead and isn't described as cancerous. Malignant: can spread and grow in other parts of the body, and is desribed as cancerous.
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What is a pathogen?
A disease-causing microorganism.
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What are the 4 types of pathogens?
1. Virus 2. Fungi 3. Bacteria 4. Protozoa
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What is a parasite?
It's a protozoan which lives off a host.
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What is Malaria?
It is a disease caused by a protozoan, which is a parasite. Humans are the host.
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How is Malaria caused? (Part One)
Malaria parasites are sucked up from a human's bloodstream by a mosquito (the vector). Once inside the mosquito, they mate and move from the gut to the salivary glands. When the mosquito bites another human, the Malaria parasites are passed on.
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How is Malaria caused? (Part Two)
They then head straight for the liver, where they mature and reproduce. The malaria parasites then migrate to the blood and replicate in RBC's, bursting them open.
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What defences does the body have from pathogens?
1. The skin 2. Respiratory System is lined with specialised cels which produce a sticky, liquid mucus that form a mucus membrane. Cilia move mucus up to the mouth 3. Stomach hydrochloric acid 4. Blood clots in wounds
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How do Phagocytes deal with pathogens?
Phagocytes are a type of WBC which moves in the bloodstream searching for pathogens. When they find some, they engulf and digest them.
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How to Lymphocytes deal with pathogens?
Lymphocytes are another type of WBC. They recognise antigens on the surface of pathogens and produce antibodies that lock onto the antigens and kill the pathogens.
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What is active immunity?
Once WBC's are sensitised to a particular pathogen, they can produce the necessary antibodies much quicker if the same pathogen is detected again. This provides future protection against the disease.
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What is passive immunity?
When anitbodies are put into a persons body, rather than the body producing them. However, it doesn't give long-term protection against the pathogen because the WBC's didn't produce the antibody themselves.
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Describe immunisation
1. Weakened/ dead strain of pathogen injected into body. Antigen remains intact. 2. Antigens on the pathogen trigger WBC's to produce specific antibodies 3. WBC's, memory cells, remain sensitised, so they can produce antibodies much quicker if needed
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What are the benefits of immunisation?
1. Protects against diseases which could kill or cause disability. 2. If everyone is vaccinated, the disease can't spread and eventually dies out.
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What is a risk of immunisation?
An individual could have an allergic reaction to the vaccine.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the right side of the circulatory system

Back

1. Deoxygenated blood id carried from the capillaries in the body to the right atrium in the heart by the vena cava. 2. The blood goes through the right ventricle 3. Blood is pumped by the pulmonary artery to the capillaries in the lungs.

Card 3

Front

What is health?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is being fit?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What factors can increase blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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