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Define healthy.
Healthy means being free of any infections or disease.
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Define fit.
Fit is a measure of how well you can perform physical tasks.
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What are the factors that can increase blood pressure?
Smoking, being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, being under lots of stress for a long time.
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How does carbon monoxide (found in cigarettes) increase blood pressure?
It combines with hemoglobin in red blood cells and so less oxygen can be carried. Therefore blood pressure increases to transport enough oxygen to the different parts of the body.
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How does saturated fats contribute to high blood pressure?
Saturated fats causes a build up of cholesterol which forms a plaque in the artery walls. This narrows the arteries and so the heart contracts more so that enough blood can get to the heart. Due to the restriction, strokes are likely.
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What is thrombosis and what can it cause?
Thrombosis is a blood clot which restricts the flow of blood. If it occurs in an already narrow artery it restricts blood completely and this causes a heart-attack.
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Name the 5 food groups.
Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins and Minerals and Water.
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What are Carbohydrates made up of and where are they stored?
They are made up of simple-sugars, like glucose, and they are stored in the liver as glycogen.
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What are Proteins made up of and where are they stored?
They are made up of amino acids, and they don't get stored.
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Name the 3 factors that affect your balanced diet.
Age, gender and physical activity.
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What is kwashiorkor and which countries does it affect most?
It is a disease caused by protein deficiency and it affects LEDC's more.
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How do you work out a person's EAR?
0.6*body mass.
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Name 2 eating disorders.
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
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How do you work out BMI?
body mass/ height^2
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Why isn't BMI always reliable, and what is an alternative?
Some people have a lot of muscle, which weighs more than fat, so they can have a high BMI even if they aren't overweight. An alternative is to measure % body fat.
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Name the 4 pathogens.
Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses and Protozoa.
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What are vectors, and give an example of one.
They are organisms that carry disease without getting it themselves. An example is a mosquito.
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Give 3 ways our immune system fights against pathogens.
White blood cells can engulf pathogens, they can produce antitoxins and can produce antibodies.
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How do vaccinations work?
You are injected dead or harmless versions of the pathogen. They still have antigens so it triggers and immune reaction. WHite blood cells start producing antibodies to kill it and the memory cell remember the antibody so it's prepared for next time.
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What is passive immunity?
It is where you use antibodies made by another organism (breast milk). However it is only temporary.
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What is the difference between antibodies and antivirals?
Antivirals are used to treat viral infections, whereas antibiotics are used to kill bacteria.
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What is antibiotic resistance?
It is bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics. This could be because of overdoses or the bacteria could be naturally resistant to it.
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What is the difference between benign and malignant tumours?
Malignant tumours grow and spread and can be fatal. Whereas, benign tumours are usually not dangerous and the tumour grows in one place until it cannot grow any more.
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What sort of things can a person do less of to reduce the risk of getting cancer?
You can stop smoking and reduce your intake of processed meats and red meats.
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What is a double-blind clinical drug trial?
It is where neither the scientist or the patient knows which drug is the placebo and which drug is the real one.
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Are placebo's good?
Yes, because it allows the scientists to see if the patients are having a placebo effect or not; so they know what effect the drug actually has rather than the placebo effect taking over.
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What are drugs (define)?
They are substances that change the way the body works.
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If someone who's addicted to drugs quits what happens?
Unless they go to rehab, they suffer withdrawal symptoms because they are so dependent on them.
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Name 5 types of drugs.
Depressants, stimulants, painkillers, performance enhancers and hallucinogens.
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Give 2 examples of class B drugs
Cannabis and amphetamines.
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Briefly describe what a depressant does?
Reduces the brain's activity.
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Why does the liver get damaged if you consume too much alcohol over a long period of time?
Alcohol is poisonous and is broken down by enzymes in the liver and some of the products are toxic. If you continually drink a lot it can cause the death of liver cells forming scar tissue which stops blood from reaching the liver. This is cirrhosis
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What are some of the effects of drinking alcohol?
It cause impaired vision and judgement, poor coordination, blurred vision and slurred speech. If consumed in moderation it can help people to socialise,etc.
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What are some effects/diseases caused by smoking?
Heart disease, cancer, emphysema, smoker's cough and low birth weight babies.
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What is the difference between rods and cones?
Rods are more sensitive in dim light but can't sense colour, whereas cones are more sensitive to colours and not so good in dim light.
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What sighted people use convex lenses?
Long-sighted people use convex lenses.
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What is good about having binocular vision?
It allows us to judge distances well.
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What is the sequence that information is carried around our nervous system (reflex action sequence)?
Firstly there is a stimulus which is detected by the receptor. Electrical impulses/ messages travel through the sensory neurone then they pass through the relay neurones. Finally it travels through motor neurones and then reaches an effector.
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How do neurones pass through the synapse?
The electrical impulse triggers the release of transmitter chemical which diffuse across the gap. These chemicals bind to the receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neurone. This sets off a new electrical impulse.
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What 3 things have to be kept constant in our body?
Body temperature, levels of CO2 and water content.
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What are some of the ways your body reacts when you are too hot?
Your hairs lie flat, lots of sweat is produced (cools you down) and blood vessels close to the skin widen (vasodilation).
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What happens when your blood glucose level gets too low?
Your liver turns glycogen into glucose, no insulin is released and so blood glucose increases.
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What does insulin do?
Insulin makes the liver turn glucose into glycogen (this is done when blood sugar level is too high).
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What is type 1 diabetes and what is the treatment?
It is where the pancreas can produce little or no insulin. People with this disease have to be injected insulin regularly so that they don't die.
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What does positively phototropic mean?
It means that it grows towards the light (this is the shoot). When a shoot tip is exposed to light more auxins accumulate on one side making the plant elongate towards the light (the shaded area grows faster so it bends).
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Plant hormones are used for many things. Name them.
They are used as selective weed killers, to grow plants from cuttings (rooting powder), to control the ripening of fruit and to control dormancy.
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How many pairs of chromosomes does a human body cell nucleus contain?
23 pairs of chromosomes.
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What are gametes?
Gametes are egg and sperm cells.
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What is fertilisation?
Fertilisation is where an egg and a sperm cell join, with 23 chromosomes each, to form a new cell with the full 46 chromosomes.
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Give 3 examples of features that are affected by both the environment and your genes.
Health, Intelligence and Sporting Ability.
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What are alleles and how many alleles do you have from each parent?
Alleles are different versions of the same gene. Most of the time you have two alleles from each parent.
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What is the difference between dominant and recessive alleles?
Dominant alleles are always expressed, whereas recessive alleles are only expressed if there are two recessive alleles.
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Define genotype.
Genotype is your genetic makeup.
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What chromosome combination determines that you're female?
You are female if you have the XX combination.
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What is the ratio of having a boy to having a girl?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define fit.


Fit is a measure of how well you can perform physical tasks.

Card 3


What are the factors that can increase blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How does carbon monoxide (found in cigarettes) increase blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How does saturated fats contribute to high blood pressure?


Preview of the front of card 5
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