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What is meant by fit?
How well you perform physical tasks.
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What is meant by healthy?
Whether you are free of infections and diseases..
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What factors can increase blood pressure?
Smoking, being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, being under stress for a long time, heart contractions.
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What is systolic pressure?
When the blood pressure is at its highest and the heart contracts.
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What is diastolic pressure?
When the blood pressure is at its lowest and the heart relaxes.
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What can happen if blood pressure is too high?
It can cause blood vessels to burst, leading to strokes, brain damage and kidney failure.
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What can happen if blood pressure is too low?
It can cause poor circulation and tissues don't get all the food and oxygen that they need. It can lead to fainting.
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How does smoking increase blood pressure?
The carbon monoxide combines with the haemoglobin in the red blood cells which reduce the amount of oxygen they can carry.
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How is high cholesterol caused?
Eating too much saturated fat.
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Why is too much cholesterol bad for you?
It can start to build up in the arteries, which narrows them, restricting the blood flow.
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What is the function of Carbohydrates?
To provide energy.
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What is the function of fats?
To provide energy, act as an energy store, provide insulation.
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What is the function of proteins?
To help with growth and tissue repair, and to provide energy in emergencies.
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What is the function of vitamins and minerals?
Vitamin C is needed to prevent scurvy, Iron is needed to make haemoglobin for healthy blood.
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What is a carbohydrate and where are they stored?
Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars such as glucose. They are stored in the liver as glycogen, or converted into fats..
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What is a fat and where are they stored?
Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. They can be stored under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue.
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What is a protein and where are they stored?
Proteins are made up of amino acids. They are not stored.
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What 3 factors affect what nutrients you need in your diet?
Age, gender and physical activity.
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How does age vary the amount of different nutrients you need?
If your a child, you need more protein for growth. Older people need more calcium to protect their bones.
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How does gender vary the amount of different nutrients you need?
Females need more iron to replace the iron lost in menstrual blood.
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How does amount of physical activity vary the amount of different nutrients you need?
More active people need more protein for muscle development, and more carbohydrates for energy.
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Why might some people eat a different diet?
Religious reasons, Personal reasons, or medical reasons.
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What can happen if you do not eat enough protein?
A condition called Kwashiorkor can occur.
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Why is there not enough protein in developing countries?
Overpopulation means that there is greater demand then there is available. Or there isn't enough money to invest in agriculture to produce the protein.
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How can you calculate a persons estimated daily requirement of protein (EAR)?
EAR= 0.6 x Body mass (kg)
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What does BMI stand for and what is it used for?
BMI stands for body mass index. It is used to decide whether someone is underweight, normal, overweight or obese using their height and weight.
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How do you calculate BMI?
BMI= Body mass (Kg) / Height2 (M)
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What is a pathogen?
A pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease.
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What are the 4 types of pathogen?
Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa.
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How do white blood cells help clear the body of pathogens?
By consuming them, producing antitoxins or producing antibodies.
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How does a white blood cell produce an antibody to fight off pathogens?
The white blood cell will produce antibodies when they come across a foreign antigen. They lock on and kill the new invading cells. The antibodies are they specific to that pathogen, so can continue to kill any of that particular cell.
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How does an immunisation work?
It involves injecting dead or inactive cells into the body, so that the white blood cells can create antibodies to attack the certain types of cells when the active pathogens enter the body.
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What is active immunity?
Where the immune system makes it own antibodies after being stimulated by a pathagon.
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What are antibiotics?
Antibiotics are drugs that kill bacteria without killing your body cells.
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What is a benign tumour?
When the tumour runs out of room to grow so it it not dangerous or cancerous.
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What is a maligent tumour?
When the tumour grows and spreads across the body so its dangerous and cancerous.
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What can increase the chances of getting cancer?
Smoking, eating processed meats and not eating enough fibre.
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How are drugs developed?
A computer model stimulates a humans response to a drug, then they are tested on human tissues, then it is tested on animals.
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how is a clinical trial done?
There are two groups of people. One is given the new drug and one is given a sugar pill that looks like the drug. They can they see if the drug really worked.
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What is a depressant?
It increases the activity of the brain and slows down the responses of the nervous system. Eg, alcohol, solvents and temazepam.
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What is a stimulant?
They increase the activity of the brain making you more alert and awake. Eg, nicotine, ecstasy and caffeine.
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What is a painkiller?
A drug that works by reducing the number of painful stimuli at the nerve endings near an injury. Eg, aspirin and paracetamol.
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What is a performance enhancer?
A drug taken to help build muscle and allow athletes to train harder. Eg, anabolic steriods.
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What is a hallucinogen?
A drug that disorts what's seem and heard by altering the pathways that the brain sends messaged along.
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Why are some people short sighted?
Because the lense of the eye is the wrong shape and bends the light too much, or the eyeball is too long.
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Why are some people long sighted?
Because their lens in the eye is the wrong shape and doesnt bend light enough, or the eyeball is too short.
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What happens when your too hot?
Your hairs lie flat, you sweat alot, the blood vessles close.
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What happens if your too cold?
Hairs stand up, barely any sweat is produces, blood vessles near the surface constrict, and you shiver to produce more heat.
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What is type one diabetes?
When the pacreas produces little or no insulin, which means that they have too much glucose in the blood.
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What is type two diabetes?
When somebody becomes resistant to insulin, so they can cause blood sugar levels to rise to a dangerous level.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is meant by healthy?

Back

Whether you are free of infections and diseases..

Card 3

Front

What factors can increase blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is systolic pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is diastolic pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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