B1 4.1 to B1 4.8

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What do plants need to survive?
Light, carbon dioxide, water, space, oxygen and nutrients (to prduce glucose energy)
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What do animals need to survive?
Water, oxygen and food from other living organisms
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What are adpatations?
Features that allow a living organism to survive in their particular habitat, even when the conditions are extreme
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Why do plants need to photsynthesise?
To produce the glucose needed for energy and growth
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Why do plants need water?
To maintain their cells and tissues and keep them rigid/supported, for photsynthesis
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Why do plants need light?
For photosynthesis to make food
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Why do plants need space?
To grow, allow roots to take in water/ nutrients, leaves to capture light
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Why do plants need nutrients?
So they can make all the chemicals they need in their cells
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How are a plant's seeds spread?
Wind, water, exploding pods, attaching to animals and excretion
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What is transpiration?
How plants lose water
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What are extremophiles?
Organisms that survive and reproduce in the most difficult conditions
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Why do living things adapt?
To survive and reproduce
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What does a high surface area: volume mean?
A lot of surface is exposed compared to the volume of the object
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What does a small surface area: volume mean?
A small surface is exposed compared to the volume of an object
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What are adaptations for a cold climate?
Thick oily fur coat, layer of blubber, small ears, large furry feet, rounded body shape to maintain small surface area to volume ratio and conserve heat
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What are adaptations for a hot climate?
Large thin ears, little body fat, thin silky fur, often only active at night, long limbs to help spread the heat, little or no sweating, more elongated body shape for a large surface area; volume to lose heat
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How do plants lose water from their leaves?
Water goes through roots, moves up through xylem into leaves, stomata in the leaves of the plant open to allow gases in and out for photosynthesis/respiration, but at the same time water vapour is lost through the stomata by evaporation
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Why do desert plants have leaves with a small surface area?
Cuts down the area from which water can be lost
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Why do some desert plants have curled leaves?
Reduces the surface area of the leaves, traps a layer of moist air around the leaf and reduces the amount of water lost by evaporation
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What is a cuticle and what does it do?
Waxy covering on the leaf that stops water from evaportaing
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Why do desert plants have extensive root systems?
Allow the plant to take up as much water as possible from the soil
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What do the fleshy leaves/ stems of desert plants do?
Store water
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What is competition?
The process by which living organisms compete with each other for limited resources such as food, water, light or mates
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What do animals usually compete for?
Food, territory and mates
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Why do animals compete for territory?
To reproduce and to find enough food in a certain space
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What makes a successful competitor?
Adaptations- find food/ mate/ home better, breed successfully, don't compete
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What happens if an animal is not a good competitor?
Move area, adopt new strategies, become extinct and die
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What is intra-specific competition?
Between individuals of the same species
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What is inter-specific competition?
Between individuals of different species
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Name three factors which affect where an organism lives.
Temperature, availability of water and availability of nutrients
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Name 3 ways scientists can measure environmental change.
Rain gauges, thermometers and oxygen levels
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Name an organism affected by air pollution.
Lichen
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What happens to lichen as the air becomes more polluted?
It becomes crusty
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Name a type of organism that is affected by levels of water pollution.
Mayfly larvae
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What happens to oxygen levels in water as water pollution increases?
Oxygen levels decrease
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Name 3 changes to the environment that could change the distribution of a species.
Average temperature, average rainfall and other living organisms
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CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN...
CAUSATION!
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What are the advantages of using the presence of organisms as indicators of pollution?
Cheap, quick and easy
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What are the disadvantages of using the presence of organisms as indicators of pollution?
Not accurate, could be another cause for change
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What factors affect the distribution of organisms?
Average temperature/rainfall, light, pH, local climate, oxygen levels and other living organisms
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What are environmental changes?
Changes caused by living or non-living factors that cause a change in the distribution of living organisms in the area
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How can we measure environmental change?
Can be measured using non-living indicators, living organisms can be used as indicators of pollution
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What are non-living factors?
Factors that are not living like rainfall or temperature
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Changes in the environment affect the ...... of living ...... This means that living organisms can be used as ....... of .......
Distribution, organisms, indicators, pollution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do animals need to survive?

Back

Water, oxygen and food from other living organisms

Card 3

Front

What are adpatations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do plants need to photsynthesise?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do plants need water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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