B1

What is the formula for magnification?
size of image/ size of real object
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What can light microscopes magnify up to?
x2000
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What can electron microscopes magnify up to?
x2000000
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What is resolution?
It is the ability to distinguish between two separate points
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What affects how much detail a microscope can show?
Resolving power
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What features does an animal cell have?
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.
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As well as animal cell structure what else do plant and bacteria cells also contain?
A cellulose cell wall
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In addition to animal cell structures what else does the plant cell have?
Chloroplasts and a vacuole filled with sap
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What is cytoplasm?
A liquid gel where chemical reactions take place
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What are ribosomes?
Protein synthesis takes place here
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Why is it important that the vacuole contains sap?
Because this keeps the cells rigid which supports the plant
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What are eukaryotic cells?
These cells all have genetic material contained in the nucleus
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What are small rings of DNA called?
Plasmids
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What are prokaryotic cells?
The genetic material isn't in the nucleus
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What are some examples of a specialised animal cell?
Nerve, muscle and sperm cells
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What is the first adaptation of a nerve cell?
It has a long axon that carries the nerve impulse
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What is the second adaptation of a nerve cell?
Lots of dendrites to make connections to other nerve cells
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What are dendrites?
The branches coming off the cell
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What is the third adaptation of nerve cells?
The synapses are adapted to pass the impulses using transmitter chemicals. Also contain lots of mitochondria so have energy to make chemical
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What is the first adaptation of a muscle cell?
They have special proteins that slide over each other making the fibres contract
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What is the second adaptation of a muscle cell?
They contain many mitochondria
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What is the third adaptation of a muscle cell?
Store glycogen- used in respiration
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What is the first adaptation of a sperm cell?
Long tail- slide and move
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What is the second adaptation of a sperm cell?
Full of mitochondria in the middle
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What is the third adaptation of a sperm cell?
Head stores digestive enzymes- break down outer layer of egg
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What is the fourth adaptation of a sperm cell?
A large nucleus- DNA to be passed
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What are some examples of specialised plant cells?
Root hair, photosynthetic, xylem and phloem cells
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What is the first adaptation of a root hair cell?
Increase surface area
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What is the second adaptation of a root hair cell?
Large vacuole- speeds up movement of water
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What is the third adaptation of a root hair cell?
Many mitochondria
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What is the first adaptation of a photosynthetic cell?
Contain chloroplasts
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What is the second adaptation of a photosynthetic cell?
Have continuous layers- absorbs as much light
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What is the third adaptation of a photosynthetic cell?
Vacuole- supports stem and helps leaf spread
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What is the first adaptation of a xylem cell?
The cells die and leave tubes behind so water + minerals move easy
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What is the second adaptation of a xylem cell?
The spirals make them strong and withstand pressure of water
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What is the first adaptation of a phloem cell?
The cells walls break down- allowing dissolved food to move easy
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What is the second adaptation of a phloem cell?
Lose internal structures so more room for dissolved food
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What is diffusion?
Spreading out of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration
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What affects diffusion?
Difference in concentration, temperature and surface area
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What are some substances that use diffusion?
Glucose, urea, O2 and CO2
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What is the formula for net movement?
Particles moving in - particles moving out
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How can you increase the rate of diffusion?
Increase surface area
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What is hypertonic?
Where the concentration of the solution and solution is higher than the internal concentration
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What is isotonic?
Where the concentration of solutes in the solution outside the cell is the same as the internal concentration
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What is hypotonic
Where the concentration of the solution and solution is lower than the internal concentration
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What is turgor?
When no more water can enter the plant
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What is active transport?
Moves substances from a dilute to more concentrated solution using energy
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What are some exmples of where active transport happens?
Root hair cells and your gut lining
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What are the adaptations of exchange surfaces?
Large surface area, thin walls and a good blood supply
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What is the surface area to volume ratio?
Is the amount of surface area to volume
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What does it mean if your SA:V is large?
Diffusion is easier
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What does it mean if your SA:V is small?
Diffusion is harder
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How is alveoli adapted for diffusion?
Enormous surface area and a rich blood suppl
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How are villi adapted for diffusion?
Large surface area, short diffusion paths and rich blood supply
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How are fish adapted for diffusion?
Gills made up of stacks of thin filaments with rich blood supplies
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How are leaves adapted for diffusion?
Large surface area- due to root hair cells and have stomata
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can light microscopes magnify up to?

Back

x2000

Card 3

Front

What can electron microscopes magnify up to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is resolution?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What affects how much detail a microscope can show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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