B1

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which kingdom do algae belong to?
protista
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what are algae?
simple aquatic organisms
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where in a plant are chloroplasts found?
all of its green parts
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which plant cells don't have chloroplasts?
root hair cells, inner stem, bulbs, flower, fruit
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what are bacterial cell walls made of?
polysaccharide chains (not cellulose)
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what are plasmids?
small rings of DNA outside the DNA loop
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what do plasmids do?
code for specific features, e.g. antibiotic resistance
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what is a flagellum?
long protein strand that lashes about
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what do dendrites do?
make connections to other nerve cells
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what do axons do?
carry nerve impulses from one place to another
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why do synapses have lots of mitochondria?
to release energy needed for making neurotransmitters
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which chemical can muscles store?
glycogen
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how do muscle fibres contract?
proteins slide over each other
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what are sperm cells adapted to do?
swim through water / female reproductive system; break into egg
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what does the sperm's acrosome store?
digestive enzymes, to break down the egg's outer layers
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how does a large permanent vacuole help the cell?
keeps it rigid
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where can diffusion happen?
in solution, or in a gas
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what is the concentration gradient of a substance?
its difference in concentration between two areas
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what is gas exchange?
diffusion of O2 and CO2 in different directions in the lungs
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what is turgor?
pressure that builds up in a plant cell until no more water can enter it
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what can happen in plasmolysis?
the cell membrane can pull away from the cell wall
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where does active transport move glucose to?
to the blood, from the gut
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how do fish keep a constant flow of water?
pump water over gills using the operculum
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are algae?

Back

simple aquatic organisms

Card 3

Front

where in a plant are chloroplasts found?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

which plant cells don't have chloroplasts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are bacterial cell walls made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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