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  • Created by: dkoning00
  • Created on: 06-05-16 18:32
Describe the difference between being healthy and being fit
HEALTHY means being free of infection or disease, whereas being FIT is a measure of how well you can perform physical tasks
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What five areas do fitness profiles measure?
Strength, speed, agility, flexibility and stamina
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How is blood pumped around the body?
The heart fills with blood then contracts to push it out through arteries
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When is blood pressure highest and what is this measure called?
When the heart contracts - systolic pressure
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When is blood pressure lowest and what is this measure called?
When the heart relaxes - diastolic pressure
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What is blood pressure measured in?
mm of Mercury
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What is a healthy blood pressure?
120 (systolic) over (diastolic) 80
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What life factors can increase your blood pressure?
Smoking, being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, lots of stress
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What problems can high blood pressure cause?
Bursting capillaries can cause brain damage, strokes, kidney damage and heart attacks
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In what two ways does smoking increase blood pressure?
Carbon monoxide reduces oxygen content in blood so heart rate has to increase to oxygenate cells properly and nicotine is a stimulant causing increased heart rate
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How can saturated fats lead to heart attacks?
Lots of saturated fat increases cholesterol in the blood causing plaques to develop in arteries restricting blood flow and causing heart attacks
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What other food substance can lead to plaque build-up? How?
Lots of salt increases blood pressure and damages arteries which encourages the growth of plaques
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What is a heart attack?
When coronary arteries become blocked by cholesterol and a thrombosis (clot) the heart muscle receives less oxygen and cannot operate properly
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What are the six essential nutrients in a balanced diet?
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins and minerals
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Why is a balanced diet important?
So every function in your body is effectively maintained
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What are Carbohydrates made of and what do they do in the body?
Simple sugars e.g. glucose - provide energy by respiration
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Amino acids - for growth and repair of tissue as well as emergency energy production
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Fatty acids and glycerol - used as an energy store and to provide insulation
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Vitamins and minerals?
Various maintenance uses e.g. Vitamin C prevents scurvy
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Hydrates the body
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How can carbohydrates be stored?
As glycogen in the liver or turned into fats
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Can proteins be stored?
No - excess is excreted
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Where is fat stored?
Under the skin and around organs as adipose tissue
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What is meant by the term 'essential amino acids'?
Amino acids that the body needs but cannot make itself - has to get it form elsewhere
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What issues can vegetarians and vegans have with acquiring essential amino acids?
Meat contains all essential amino acids (first class proteins) but plants only contain some (second class proteins) so they must eat a wide range
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Why do teenagers and children need more protein than adults?
Because they are growing
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For what reasons may someone not eat certain foods?
Religious (e.g. Halal), Personal (e.g. vegetarian) and Medical (e.g. allergies or intolerance)
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What can not eating enough protein cause?
Kwashiorkor - swollen stomach
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Why is this more common in overpopulated areas of poor countries?
Because the demand for protein-rich food is often greater than the available amount and there isn't enough money to invest in effective production techniques
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What does EAR stand for?
Estimated Average daily Requirement (of protein)
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How do you calculate someone's protein EAR?
EAR (g) = Body mass (kg) x 0.6
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How can eating disorders affect the health?
The sufferer often does not get the correct type/amount of protein into their diet which can cause a range of medical issues and can be fatal
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What are pathogens?
Microorgansims that can cause disease
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List the four pathogens
Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses and Protozoa
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Give an example of a disease caused by fungi
Athletes foot
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Flu, Ebola, the common cold etc.
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Malaria, dysentary
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What causes the symptoms of an infectious disease?
Cell damage or toxins produced by the pathogens
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How is malaria spread?
By mosquitoes - they are the vectors of the protozoan - carry the parasite when they feed on an animal that has it and passes it on to the next animal on which it feeds
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How does spraying insecticides over water sources stop the spread of Malaria?
Mosquitoes breed in water, insecticides kill them so they cannot reproduce and spread the disease
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What is a parasite?
An organism that lives off another organism and often causes it harm
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What cells fight pathogens?
White blood cells
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In what three ways does the immune system tackle pathogens?
White blood cells engulf and digest them; antitoxins are produced to counter toxins' effects; producing antibodies
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How do antibodies work?
Specific antibodies are produced to match the specific antigen coating of a pathogen - these lock onto the foreign cells and destroy them by breaking them down. Some antibodies stay in the blood to immediately kill the pathogen if it ever returns
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How does immunisation stop you getting infectious diseases?
You are injected with a dead strain of the disease so antibodies are produced to tackle it. This gives you the memory cells to stop you getting it again
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What is passive immunity?
Using antibodies from another organism to temporarily protect against pathogens e.g. passed from mother to baby in breast milk
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What do Antibiotics kill?
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How can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
Over-prescription and over-use
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Give an example of an antibiotic-resistant strain
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How can antivirals work?
By destroying cells with viruses in them to stop the virus reproducing
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What is a tumour?
Mass of cells dividing out of control
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What are Carcinogens?
Toxins that can cause mutations in DNA and lead to uncontrolled cell division
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What does Benign mean?
Not dangerous, tumour grows until there's no more room then the cells stay where they are
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What does Malignant mean?
Tumour grows and spreads, is dangerous and can be fatal
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Give two examples of how a healthy lifestyle can reduce your risk of getting cancer
Not smoking (reduces lung cancer), eating less processed meat and more fibre (reduces colon cancer risk)
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What are survival rates?
The percentage of people who have a disease but survive for at least 5 years
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What are mortality rates?
The proportional amount of the population the disease kills (per 100 000 men in UK for instance)
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Why are new drugs tested?
To make sure they're safe and they work
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What do computer models do?
Simulate a human reaction to drugs based on its properties
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What is the next stage of testing?
Human tissue
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Why is this not conclusive?
Does not represent how drugs react to the whole body
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Why are drugs then tested on animals?
To make sure they don't harm living organisms
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What does the law say about animal drug testing?
All drugs must be tested on at least 2 different mammals before they can be released
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What is a clinical trial?
Human subject testing
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How is this done?
Sample split into two groups, one group given drug and other given placebo, patients' conditions monitored over time for change
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What is a double-blind trial?
Neither patients or scientists know who has been given the placebo until the end
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Define a drug
A substance which alters the chemical state of the body
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List three LEGAL drugs and three ILLEGAL drugs
Caffeine, paracetamol, nicotine, alcohol etc. Cocaine, ecstasy, heroine etc.
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Why are some legal drugs heavily controlled?
Because they can be dangerous and addictive if abused
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What is tolerance?
The body gets used to a drug's effect so a higher dose is needed
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What are the five types of drug?
Depressants, Stimulants, Painkillers, Painkillers, Performance Enhancers and Hallucinogens
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What do depressants do? Give an example
Slow down brain activity and the body's reactions. Alcohol, cannabis etc.
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Increase brain activity and body's reactions. Caffeine, nicotine, ecstasy
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Reduce the number of painful stimuli at nerve endings. Paracetamol, ibuprofen
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Performance Enhancers
Help accelerate muscle growth. Anabolic steroids (testosterone for example)
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They alter pathways in the brain to distort what is seen and heard. LSD, Heroine
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Give three examples of Class A drugs
Any three from: heroin, cocaine, ecstasy, crystal meth and LSD.
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Give three examples of Class B drugs
Amphetamine, Cannabis, Ketamine
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Give three examples of Class C drugs
Anabolic steroids, tranquilisers, Vallium
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What is liver cirrhosis?
Excess alcohol is broken down in the liver producing toxins which kills liver cells and creates scar tissue stopping blood flow
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What effects does alcohol have?
Slows reactions, impaired judgement, poor coordination and balance, slurred speech etc.
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What is the UK blood alcohol limit for driving legally?
80 milligrams of alcohol in 100 milliliters of blood
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What is the reccommened limit of alcohol consumption for men weekly?
21 units per week
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And for women
14 units per week
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How can smoking cause heart disease?
Carbon monoxide in smoke reduces the amount of oxygen blood can carry which can lead to a heart attack
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How can smoking cause lung, throat, mouth and oesophageal cancer?
Tar builds up in the lungs which is full of toxins, some of which are Carcinogens which cause mutations and lead to cancer
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How can smoking cause the 'Smoker's cough' and lung diseases?
Smoke destroys Cilia in lungs which means excess mucus is produced and cannot be coughed up. The lungs also lose their elasticity causing emphysema
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How can smoking cause low birth weight in babies?
Low oxygen in mother's blood (caused by CO) deprives foetus of oxygen leading to a small baby at birth
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In the eye, what does the Cornea do?
Refracts light into the eye
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And the Iris?
Muscle contacts and expands to change amount of light entering the pupil
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Refracts light more, focusing it on the retina
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Light sensitive part at the back of the eyeball, receptors detect light and convey to brain
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Part of the retina sensitive to dim light but not colour
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Sensitive to different colours but not dim light
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Optic nerve?
Carries impulses form receptors to brain
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How does the eye focus on objects?
Lens bends to refract light different amounts to focus light on the retina
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What is long-sightedness?
Cannot focus on near objects
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What causes it?
Light isn't refracted enough, Lens muscles are too weak or eyeball is too short
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What kind of lens is needed to correct it?
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And short-sightedness?
Cannot focus on far away objects
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What causes it?
Light is refracted too much, Lens muscles bend it more than necessary or eyeball is too long
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What kind of lens is needed to correct it?
Concave lens
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What are the three common methods for correcting eyesight?
Glasses, contact lenses and laser surgery
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What is binocular vision and what are its benefits?
Both eyes work together/point in the same direction - gives depth perception for predators
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What is monocular vision and what are its benefits?
Eyes pointing in different directions - gives a wider field of view for prey to see more around them
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What does CNS stand for?
Central Nervous System
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What does the CNS consist of?
Brain and spinal cord
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What are the three types of neurone and what do they do?
Sensory neurone - carry information from receptors (when they detect stimuli) to CNS. Motor neurones - carries info from brain to effector (muscles etc.). Relay neurones- passes message from sensory to motor
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What is a reflex action?
An involuntary reaction that does not require thought
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How does the reflex arc work?
Message from receptor passes down sensory neurone to CNS (spinal cord) then along a relay neurone to the correct motor neurone to cause the appropriate effect ( e.g. pulling finger back from flame)
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How do neurones transmit information around the body?
As electrical impulses
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What is a Dendrite?
Part of the nerve cell that branches out to connect with other neurones
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Long electrical material to carry impulses from one end to the other surrounded by shealth
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Connection between two neurones
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How does a signal travel across a synapse?
Impulse triggers release of neurotransmitters which diffuse across the gap to receptors on the other side to continue impulse
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How exactly do stimulants affect brain activity?
They increase the amount of neurotransmitters released at some synapses which increases the frequency of impulses to the brain
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And depressants?
Depressants bind with receptor molecules to block electrical impulses and slow brain activity
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What is homeostasis?
The body balancing its functions to maintain a constant internal environment
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What is negative feedback?
Changes in the environment automatically trigger a response that counteracts the change e.g. a rise in body temp. causes a response that lowers body temp.
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Why is the internal environment so important?
Because human functions have evolved to work best under very specific conditions so they must be maintained for the body to work effectively
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What's the optimum temperature for all human body enzymes?
37 degrees Celcius
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Where is body temperature measured?
Hypothalamus - thermoregulatory centre of the brain
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Sensitive to blood temperature and receives impulses from skin
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What two body systems does the brain use to respond to a change in temperature?
Hormonal and nervous
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What does your body do when you're too hot?
Hairs on skin lie flat; pours open up and sweat gland produces sweat to cool skin; Vasodilation - blood vessels close to surface widen to allow more heat radiation out;
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What does your body do when you're too cold?
Hairs stand on end to create an insulating pocket of air; pours close to stop sweating; Vasoconstriction - blood vessels near surface constrict to minimise radiation of heat; you shiver to generate movement and heat in muscles
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What is the condition called when your body gets dangerously hot?
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And too cold?
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What two hormones control blood sugar levels?
Insulin and glucagon
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What organ measures blood glucose levels and releases insulin?
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How does the body reduce blood glucose levels?
Too much glucose in blood; pancreas releases more insulin into blood; insulin causes glucose to be turned into Glycogen and stored in the liver
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What does the body do to increase blood glucose levels?
Not enough glucose; pancreas stops releasing insulin and releases Glucagon into blood; Glucagon turns glycogen back into glucose in the liver so more glucose is added to the blood
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Why does the body react more slowly to hormones than a nervous impulse?
Hormones travel in the blood so take time to reach the target audience
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What is Diatbetes?
A condition that affects the body's ability to control blood glucose levels
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What is Type 1 Diabetes?
The pancreas produces little to no insulin so glucose levels rise dangerously and can be fatal
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How can its effects be controlled?
By injecting synthesised insulin to remove glucose form blood
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What is Type 2 Diabetes?
A person becomes resistant to the effects of insulin (body cells don't respond to the hormone properly) so glucose levels rise - can also be very dangerous
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How can its effects be controlled?
By limiting the amount of carbohydrate rich food in the diet
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What are Auxins?
Plant growth hormones
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What effect does Auxin have in the shoot of a plant?
Causes cell elongation
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And in the root?
Inhibits cell growth
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Where is auxin produced?
Shoot and root TIPS
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What is meant by the term Phototropic?
Growth in relation to light
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And Geotropic?
Growth in relation to gravity
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How does auxin make shoots positively Phototropic?
Accumulates on shaded side, elongating cells and bending shoot towards light
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How does auxin make shoots negatively Geotropic?
Gravity causes auxin to build up on under side of the shoot, elongating cells and bending it upwards
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How does auxin make roots negatively Phototropic?
Accumulates on shaded side, slowing cell growth to bend root away from light source
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How does auxin make roots positively Geotropic?
Accumulates on underside due to gravity, stops cells growing longer and bends roots downwards
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How can it be proved auxin is produced in the tip of a plant shoot?
If tip is covered and light blocked out, shoot does not bend towards light. If any other part is covered, it does
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List four commercial uses of plant hormones
As selective weed killers, growing plants from cuttings with rooting powder, controlling fruit ripening and controlling dormancy
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How are they used as selective weed killers?
Hormones which disrupt growth of broad-leaved plants are sprayed in crop fields. Most crops (cereal etc.) are narrow leaved so unaffected
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How does rooting powder work to grow cuttings?
Contains plant hormones that cause plants to grow roots so cuttings become full plant clones to reproduce quickly
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How do plant hormones control fruit ripening and why?
Some hormones delay the ripening of fruit while still growing or after being picked. Useful so fruits aren't damaged in transit as they aren't ripe
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How can hormones be used to control dormancy and why?
Some seeds only grow at certain times of year due to conditions- they lay dormant for a while. Gibberellin (hormone) causes germination of seeds at any time so supply for certain things can be maintained all year round
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What is DNA?
Chemical that makes up the genetic code
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What is a chromosome?
Coiled up DNA that contains genes to determine characteristics
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What is a gene?
Section of a chromosome that codes a specific characteristic in the body (e.g. eye colour)
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What is an Allele?
A version of a gene that dictates the characteristic (e.g. blue eyes instead of brown)
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How many chromosomes are in every human body cell?
46 (23 pairs)
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How many in Gametes?
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What does Diploid mean?
Cell with all chromosomes
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What does Haploid mean?
Cell with half the normal number off chromosomes
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Where in the cell are chromosomes kept?
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What are Gametes?
Sperm and egg cells with only 23 Chromosomes (Haploid cells) used for fertilisation
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What three things cause genetic variation and how?
Gamete formation - only 23 out of 46 chromosomes in each gamete so not all the characteristics from each parent are passed on. Fertilisation - Can't predict which gametes will join. Mutations - Genes mutate randomly or due to stimuli causing change
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What else affects characteristics other than genes?
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How do genes and environment affect health?
Some genes make it more likely to get certain diseases (e.g. cancer); lifestyle obviously dictates health too (e.g. smoking)
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What do genetic diagrams show?
Possible genes of offspring of two people
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What are the two types of allele and how are these represented in a genetic diagram?
Dominant - capital letter. Recessive - lower case letter
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What does the dominant allele do?
Causes the version of the characteristic to appear (e.g. causes green eyes)
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And the recessive?
Causes the other version only if there's no dominant present (e.g. brown eyes if green is dominant)
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What does homozygous mean?
Both alleles are the same i.e. both dominant (CC) or both recessive (cc)
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What does heterozygous mean?
Two different alleles meaning dominant takes effect e.g. Cc
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What is a genotype?
The genetic makeup of alleles i.e. the alleles you have for a specific gene
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What is a phenotype?
The characteristics or effects caused by the genotype e.g. green eyes
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If both parents are heterozygous what is the possibility of the offspring being recessively homozygous?
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What is a Monohybrid cross?
Breeding between two organisms to look at characteristics controlled by one gene
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Which chromosome pair determines gender?
23rd pair (XY chromosomes)
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Which chromosomes cause male characteristics?
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Which chromosomes cause female characteristics?
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What causes genetic disorders?
Faulty genes
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How can someone be a carrier of a genetic disorder?
They have the faulty gene but don't have the disorder themselves
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If a disorder is caused by a recessive allele, what are the chances of the offspring of two heterozygous people not having the gene, being a carrier and being a sufferer?
Respectively: 25% (don't have the gene), 50% (carrier) and 25% (sufferer)
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How can knowing you have a faulty gene cause problems in families?
People wonder if it's cruel to risk their child getting the disorder from their genes, some people may choose to abort a pregnancy because of the possibility of their child having the disorder etc.
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What five areas do fitness profiles measure?


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Card 3


How is blood pumped around the body?


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Card 4


When is blood pressure highest and what is this measure called?


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Card 5


When is blood pressure lowest and what is this measure called?


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