B063: 2014 TechMed Pre-release Chapter 4 Revision

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What does TechMed2014 use expert systems for?
Diagnosis and treament in a variety of medical situations.
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Why do doctors, nurses and consultants use expert systems?
If they are unsure of drugs used in a treatment, diagnosis of a rare condition, no specialist to consult with or insufficient time to carry out research into.
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What is an expert system?
An expert system is a computer application that use a knowledge database to give advice rather than using a human expert.
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How does the expert system interact with the consultant?
The patient information is entered into the system which then uses a series of questions and answers to find a diagnosis. It then explains the reasoning behind its diagnosis and gives a recommended treatment.
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Why is this type of program useful?
It offers the non-specialist health worker a series of logical steps that an expert would have taken to solve the problem.
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What techniques do physicians diagnose or treat patients with?
Consultation or discussion of symptoms with patient, physical examinations of patient or making use of advanced imaging technology to view inside the patient.
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Where have the main advances in the use of technology for the diagnosis of patients been?
In the area of imaging technology allowing doctors to look inside patients. This should be able to diagnose conditions such as cancer.
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Name 4 non-intrusive imaging technologies.
Radiography, CT and MRI scanner, ultrasound and nuclear medicine.
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What is radiography?
A low cost approach to produce a 2D X-ray image.
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What are CT and MRI scanners?
These produce a series of 2D slices or images of the body. These can be grouped together the make a 3D picture, sometimes in full colour.
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What is an ultrasound?
This uses soundwaves to create images of soft tissue such as muscle, tendons and blood vessels and can be used to create 3D images.
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What is nuclear medicine?
Radiation can be used with imaging technology for both the diagnosis and treatment of cancers and tumours.
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What can other specialised scanners used for?
Mommography, breast scanning, bone density scanning or echocardiograms.
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These modern devices create _ _ that can be stored on a _ _ _ _ and be viewed on a range of computing devices.
Digital outputs, patient's electronic health record.
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What other piece of equipment (small enough to be swallowed) is also used for the diagnosis of patients?
A camera and camera technology, used to view parts inside the body, for example, the throat or arteries.
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What are the benefits to using advanced imaging software?
It is un-intrusive which means the patient doesn't have to be operated on. Also, digital images and diagrams can be thoroughly examined before going through to surgery.
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What is keyhole surgery?
This is where a series of small incisions are made to insert a camera attached to a small surgical instrument. The operation is carried out by a surgeon who follows the image on a computer and doing the operation using the minture tools.
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What is the main advantage to keyhole surgery?
The small incisions take far less time to heal than the size of the wound that would be needed to perform open surgery.
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What are telepresence technologies?
These make use of intricate high-definition video technologies to give the users the impression of being in the same location.
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What can telepresence technologies be used for?
It can be used to conduct a consultation between a doctor and a patient remotely.
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What would be needed to reduce the normal delays that can be associated with video conferencing?
High bandwidth conection and high definition video.
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How would a doctor check up on a patient, who's in another hospital? (list the stages)
The doctor conducts the session from their normal consulting room. The patient goes into a similar room. Both rooms are linked with high definition video cameras and audio equipment. The doctor can observe the patient, with help from another nurse.
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What is remote surgery?
Where the doctor can perform surgery on a patient who is in a different location.
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What enabled remote surgery to be invented?
The use of well-established elements of medical robots.
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Why are robotic techniques used in operating theatres during remote surgery?
The doctor is in another location and cannot be there to perform it themselves.
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How can surgeons perform the operation remotely?
Either by using advanced communicatio links or telepresence technologies.
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List the hardware required to perform telepresence remote surgery.
High bandwidth videoconferencing communication facilities, 3D video vision, audio in surround sound and remote control of surgical instrument using advanced robotic techniques.
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Why do expert remote surgeons observe and advise younger surgeons?
To help them learn as telepresence techniques are still an emerging science.
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How do telepresence techniques benefit the staff?
To evaluate and diagnose patients, treat and manage chronic diseases, monitor discharged patients, staff support of cases and to provide speciality expertise to patients using remote surgery techniques.
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How does telemedicine or telepresence techniques benefit the patients?
Patients in remote areas can access speciality health services without travelling cost, treated sooner locally, use equipment at home and they can use telemedicince and not have to take time off work.
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How does telemedicine benefit TechMed2014?
Consultants can run surgeries for patients from one hospital, save travelling time and costs, specialists can be shared, it can compremise for skills shortage in an area and remote surgery means surgeons can work from locations away from the hospital
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Card 2

Front

Why do doctors, nurses and consultants use expert systems?

Back

If they are unsure of drugs used in a treatment, diagnosis of a rare condition, no specialist to consult with or insufficient time to carry out research into.

Card 3

Front

What is an expert system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does the expert system interact with the consultant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is this type of program useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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