B ; chartism ; far ach aims '50 ; emergence factors in 30s

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when were Six Points of the People's Charter approved?
august 1838
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where?
radical meeting in birmingham
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what was the charter only concerned with?
political reform
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to be achieved by which six pts?
universal male suffrage / secret ballot / mp payment / equal constituencies / abolition mp property qual / annual parliament
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what three things had silenced political debate before this?
peterloo / six acts / economic revival of 20s
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whose reform interest was revived in late 20s?
wc interest
6 of 115
what types of organisations gained wide wc supp?
mc orgs e.g bpu
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these organisations were instrumental in passing of what?
32 reform act
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whose reform expectations unfulfilled?
wc / trade unionists
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what did they regard this franchise exclusion another example of that they were deeply opposed to?
sustained whig gov assault on their rights and priveliges
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for many, whigs seemed more repressive than whose post-war gov?
liverpool
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disillusion with which two things pushed people to reform?
reform act and whig gov post-32
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what is the most important eco factor?
cyclical trade depressions 38-50
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what economic things did the reformists see the whigs attacking?
trade unions
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and the whigs failed to provide effective reform of?
factory conditions
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IRISH COERCION ACT 1833
SIGNS
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when was the catholic relief act?
1829
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which did what?
freed catholics from most civil disabilities
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allowing irish catholics to turn attention to attacking what?
payment of tithes to anglican church of ireland
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what led the government to act?
violent farmer / police clashes + breakdown law and order
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when was the irish coercion act?
1833
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what type of legislation was it?
extremely repressive
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what was the lord lieutenant of ireland given the power to do?
suppress any public meetings
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what becam commonplace?
arbitrary arrest
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and how were offenders now tried rather tan civic courts?
court martial
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what did this suggest to radicals in britain?
if whigs prepared to act that badly in ireland they may extend to all british radicalism
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where were there demonstrations to the act?
all england and scotland
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mass meetings in which three places marked revival of radical activity?
manchester / birmingham / nottingham
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WHIGS AND THE TRADE UNIONS
DFGN
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when was the repeal of the combination acts?
1824
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what did this lead to the est of?
many trade unions
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what were the combination acts?
1799-1800 banned trade unions and attempts at collective bargaining
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what kind of things and size were these tus?
small mainly usually just one trade and locality
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what did robert owen establish?
the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (GNCTU)
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what did he intend to do here?
bring workers from whole nation under one wide trade union with enhanced power from mass membership
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how long did it take the whigs to destroy the GNCTU?
6 months
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what did six farm labourers in tolpuddle do?
agreed form TU and swore oath to keep activity secret
37 of 115
what did gov consider crime?
secret oathes
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so what happened to them?
convicted and sentenced to 7yrs transportation
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what was the consequence of this?
national outcry and demonstrations in LDN and manufacturing towns
40 of 115
how many people signed the national petition to parliament?
800,000
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what then happened to the men?
sentences cancelled after 3yrs and sent home but damage done
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what happened after all this palava?
GNCTU no more but local TUs cont'd
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what other event confirmed gov determination to limit TU power?
glasgow weavers strike
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when?
1837
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which led to how many leaders of what org being tried on various charges?
18 leaders Spinner's Union
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what were they sentenced to?
7yrs transportation
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what did these TU attacks intensify?
WC whig hatred
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WAR OF THE UNSTAMPED 1831-36
DFIOGND
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why had newspapers been taxed since 1712?
restrict circulation and keep out of wc hands
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in 1830s every copy of british newspaper paid how mych tax?
4p
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which meant what?
press 2 spenny 4 ordinary ppl
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what did henry hetherinton found in 1831?
the poor man's guardian
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which sold for?
1p
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why could it?
unstamped
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within two years the guardian had a weekly circulation of?
220,000 copies
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how did government try stop hetherington from publishing?
fines / imprisonment / destruction printing presses
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did it work?
nah, not even
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what did his (+others) sustained pressure lead gov to reduce stamp tax to?
1p
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in?
1836
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and what about pamphlet tax?
abolished
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what did this movement's success evidence?
that co-ordinated campaign of pressure could force gv change
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therfore emboldening?
og chartist leaders e.g lovett
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FACTORY ACT 1833
DIFGND
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what did many reformers campaign for in the late 1700s?
gov regulation of factory system
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specifically focussing on what?
long working hours for adults and children
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what 1820s measures did sir robert peel sponsor?
limit hours children
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but why were they largely ignored?
no regulation
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who took up the case for reform again in 1830?
richard oastler
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at this time what was there considerable public support for abolishing?
slavery in british empire
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when was slave trade itself abolished?
1807
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when and how did his campaign begin?
letter in leeds mercury in oct 1830
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what did he call working conditions in factories?
'yorkshire slavery'
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what did he organise in yshire / lshire
'short time committees'
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campaigning for?
10-hr day for all factory workers
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what was this movement called?
the ten hour movement
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which led to whigs doing what?
trying neutralise by proposing own changes
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when was the factory act?
1833
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said that factory owners couldn't employ children under what age?
9
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and those aged 9-18 could work maximum of?
12hrs
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what were child workders to also be given?
some form of education
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and how many inspectors were appt to enforce?
four
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what had short time committees hoped?
legislation would be introduced to regulate adult employment
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but what had whigs hoped limited reform aimed @ young ppl would do?
weaken appeal of 10hr movement
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who later joined chartist movement?
many committee members
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believing political reforms would lead to what?
legislation for improved factor legislation
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POOR LAW AMENDMENT ACT 1834
SIDGNDS
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what did this act produce the most of?
sustained opposition and resistance
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until 1834 what was poor relief provision governed by?
elizabethan poor law of 1601
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which allowed poor to do what?
stay in own homes and and claim assistance by outdoor relief
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by 1830s why was this relief system under strain?
population had almost doubled since 1601 and sev areas industrialised w/ densely populated towns
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who especially had frequently called for poor law reform?
middle class ratepayers
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what did the 1834 act reflect the reccomendations of?
royal commission set up in 1832
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what was the new principle for poor relief called?
'less eligibility'
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what did this mean?
those who sought relief from parish would recieve less than lowest-paid worker
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what did commission also recommend be abolished?
outdoor relief
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and poor should only be supported if they left homes and went?
to workhouse
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what was important abou the workhouse conditions?
deliberately unpleasant
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though many parishes came together to make workhouses which instructions were ignored?
no more outdoor relief
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what did outdoor relief remain?
most common form relief through 1800s
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when was act applied to rural south from?
1836
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and reaction?
little serious opposition
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where was its operation not suited to?
economic condition of industrial towns
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because of what cycle?
trade cycle
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which was important for which types of towns?
textile
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because what did they experience periods of?
almost full employment but then in downturn almost no employment
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why almost no employment in bad textile times?
v little jobs outside of textiles
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when was the ac extended to northern towns?
1837
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which coincided with which cycle stage?
employment depression
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in the years?
1838-42
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what had town workers gained valuable org. exp. from?
short time committees
111 of 115
and so what organisations did they transfer thse skills to from 37?
Anti-Poor Law Committees
112 of 115
what did they call the workhouses?
'poor law bastilles'
113 of 115
what led to an attack on workhouses in stockport?
food riot
114 of 115
in?
1842
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

where?

Back

radical meeting in birmingham

Card 3

Front

what was the charter only concerned with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

to be achieved by which six pts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what three things had silenced political debate before this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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