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(Wirth 1938)
Cities are socially heterogeneous and urbanization has changed every aspect of social life in cities. Urbanism is now a way of life extended outside of the city.
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Burgess (1925)
Growth of the city model
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Hoyt (1939)
Sectoral model
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Harris and Ulman (1945)
Multiple Nuclei Model
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Mann (1965)
Model of British cities - Nottingham, Sheffield and Huddersfield
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Ford (1996)
Model of Latin America - Mexico City.
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Pacione (2009)
No model is correct due to internal heterogeneity of third world entities
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Gloss (1964)
Once gentrification begins growth is rapid
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Smith (1979)
The Rent Gap Thesis complimented by deindustrialisation
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Hamnett (2000)
Criticised rent gap thesis stating it is simply an attraction not explanation
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Betancur (2002)
Gentrification exploits the displaced and lower class
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Butler and Robson (2001)
Gentrification cannot be explained as a unitary phenomenon. Tectonic social situation occurs when social groups overlap but don’t integrate which creates tension and exaggerates outward migration.
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Slater (2003)
Suggest tighter rent regulation by governance could avoid exploitation making gentrification more beneficial to all
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Smith and Holt (2007)
Looked @ relationship between HE students and urban change. Studenthood is ‘nursery for acquiring cultural capital’ – creating a high bench mark for future lifestyles – acquire their social and cultural identity. Concludes refocusing academic gaze.
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Smith and Holt (2007) GB Census 2001
Found 150 wards had a student population in excess of 20% of the total
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Knox (2010)
Talks of consequences of studentification: clash of lifestyle, economic boost 2008 houses in uni towns prices driven up and outward migration intensified
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(Mitchell 2003)
Middle class acting against the poor seems to be the urban script for the future
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(Mitchell 1997)
Anti-homeless laws illustrate this. Not only annihilation of space but annihilation of homeless who live in public space. Anti-homeless laws have a goal of redefining urban space whilst naturalising this and convincing society this is natural
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(Goheen 1993; Zukin 1995)
Public space is always going to be a negotiation of the public and “democracy”
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(Pinch and Knox 2010)
People identify themselves with what they consume and this has resulted in increased small scale spectacles in the city devoted to shopping. Also growing importance of visual geographies in cities. Cinema and the city.
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Card 2


Growth of the city model


Burgess (1925)

Card 3


Sectoral model


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Card 4


Multiple Nuclei Model


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Card 5


Model of British cities - Nottingham, Sheffield and Huddersfield


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