Atypical Behaviour.

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What does atypical behaviour mean?
Behaviour which is considered abnormal to the minority of the population.
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What does typical behaviour mean?
Behaviour which is considered normal to the majority of the population.
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What does phobias mean?
A phobia is an intense and irrational fear of an object, place, situation or activity accompanied by the desire to escape and avoid it.
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What does acrophobia mean?
A fear of open spaces.
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What does societal phobia mean?
A fear of being embarrassed in a public space.
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What does school phobia mean?
A fear of going to school
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What does acrophobia mean?
A fear of heights.
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What does arachnophobia mean?
A fear of spiders.
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What is the core theory?
The behaviorist theory.
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Is it nature or nurture?
Nurture
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What does classical conditioning mean?
It is learnt through association so that certain stimuli are associated with certain responses.
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Give the formula before the fear was learnt.
UCS - UCR + NS - NO RESPONSE
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Give the formula during the fear was learnt.
UCS + NS - UCR
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Give the formula after learning the fear.
CS - CR
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What does uncontrolled stimuls mean?
Something that triggers an automatic response.
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What does uncontrolled response mean?
A response that is natural and doesn't need to be learnt.
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What does neutral stimulus mean?
Something that would not normally trigger a response.
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What does conditioned stimulus mean?
Something that triggers a learnt response and is something that we have been conditioned to respond to.
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What does conditioned response mean?
A response which has been learnt through association.
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What does operant conditioning mean?
This is learning through the consequences of an action.
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What is positive reinforcement?
If we are getting rewarded for an action, we are likely to do it again - strengthen the fear.
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What does punishment mean?
if the consequences are negative, you are likely not to do it - we will build up a fear of them
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Give a criticism.
It ignores the thinking behind an action. People in reality act in different ways because they apply a thought process to it - lacks generlisablity.
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Give another criticism.
Ignores the important role that other people play in developing a phobia - social learning. Children learn by imitating care giver - Reductionist.
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Give a final criticism.
The theory suggests that you need to have direct experience for something to be learnt as a phobia. Some people can get a phobia from looking at something on the TV or at a photograph - less generlisable.
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Who did the core study? Date?
Watson and Rayner. 1920.
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What was the aim?
To investigate the theory of classical conditioning in relation to phobias.
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Who were the participants?
Little Albert - 9 months at first testing to 11 months for phobia to occur.
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Give the method.
A lab experiment.
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Give the procedure.
A rat was offered to Albert and as he reached out to stroke the rat, Watson banged a hammer on a steel bar to frighten him. This was repeated 7 times over 2 weeks.
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What were the results?
By the end of 7th trial, the rat on its own was enough to frighten Albert. He would cry and try to avoid it.
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Give the formula before he learnt the phobia.
Loud noise (UCS) - Fear (UCR) + White rate (NS) - NO RESPONSE.
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Give the formula during he learnt the phobia.
Loud Noise (UCS) + Rat (NS) + Fear (UCR)
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Give the formula for the phobia after he learnt it.
White rat (CS) - Fear (CR)
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Give the conclusion.
Watson and Rayner successfully conditioned Albert to fear the rat.
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Give a criticism.
Wasn't a debrief - they left before they could debrief - unethical
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Give another criticism.
Experiment was done in a lab experiment - no extraneous variables to make it real life - Lacks ecological validity.
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Give a final criticism .
It was a small sample size - only one person so it may be different to other babies - lacks generlisablity.
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What was the alternative theory?
The evolutionary theory.
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Is it nature or nurture?
Nature.
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What did this theory suggest?
That animals has evolved over time and instinctively behave in ways that allow them to survive and reproduce.
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What does it suggest to phobias?
All animals wants to survive and reproduce to pass on their genes. We fear because it is instinctive because it helps us to survive. Some things are more threatening than others. Heights, spiders Because they are less like us due to their shape.
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What does this mean?
We are born with 'preparedness' to fear certain objects and situations.
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What is the applications?
Behaviour therapy for phobias.
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What happens in flooding?
When the client is immersed in their fear. They face it: their body is sweating and they feel sick and their heart rate increases. Eventually, they realise that they cannot die and so their body goes back to normal. They now associate that feeling.
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What happens with systematic desensitization?
They gradually are made is face their fear. It takes a long time but, the fear subsides.
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What happens with implosion therapy?
They imagine their worst fear.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does typical behaviour mean?

Back

Behaviour which is considered normal to the majority of the population.

Card 3

Front

What does phobias mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does acrophobia mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does societal phobia mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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