Attitudes

What is one definition of an attitude?
A enduring organisation of beliefs, feelings and behavioural tendencies towards socially significiant objects, groups or events or symbols
1 of 51
What is another definition of an attitude?
A general feeling or evaluation - positive or negative about some person, object or issue
2 of 51
Who preferred the 'one component model?'
Thurnstone
3 of 51
What did they define the attitude as?
the affect for or against a psychological object
4 of 51
Who preferred the 'two component model'?
Allport
5 of 51
What is a 'two component model?'
An attitude consists of a mental readiness to act, it also guides judgemental responses
6 of 51
Who created the 'three component strucutre?
Rosenberg and Hovland, 1960
7 of 51
What are the three components?
Affective, cognitive and behavioural
8 of 51
What is the definition of affective?
Expressions of feelings towards an object
9 of 51
What is the definition of cognitive?
Expressions of beliefs about an object
10 of 51
What is the definition of behavoural?
overt actions/verbal statements concerning behaviour
11 of 51
Where do attitudes come from?
Mere exposure effect, robert Zajonc
12 of 51
What is this?
repeated exposure of a stimulus, enhancement of preference for that stimulus
13 of 51
What is another idea where attitudes come from?
Repeated association,
14 of 51
What is this?
Previously neutral stimulus elicits reaction that was previously elicited by another stimulus
15 of 51
What is another conditioning that attitudes come from?
Instrumental conditioning
16 of 51
What is this?
Where behvaiour is followed by positive consequences then reinforced and more likely to be repeated
17 of 51
However what about behaviour that is followed by negative consequences?
It is not
18 of 51
What is self perception theory?
It is where we gain knowledge of ourselves by making self attributions
19 of 51
Therefore what do we infer?
attitudes from our behaviour
20 of 51
For example?
I read at least one novel a week, i must enjoy reading novels
21 of 51
Who created the theory of attitude functions?
Katz
22 of 51
What is the knowledge function?
Organise and predict social world, provides a sense of meaning and coherence
23 of 51
What is the ultilitarian function?
Help people achieve positive outcomes and avoid negative outcomes
24 of 51
What is ego denfensive function?
protecting ones's self esteem
25 of 51
What is value expressive function?
people to display those values that uniquely identify and define them
26 of 51
How is one way attitudes revealed?
self report and experimental paradigms
27 of 51
What does this entail?
evaluation towards objects weighted by strength, implicit association task,
28 of 51
What is another way that attitudes are revealed?
physiological measures, eg, skin resistances, heart rate and pupil dilation
29 of 51
What is overt behaviour?
frequency of behaviour
30 of 51
What is another 2 examples of overt behaviour?
trends and preferences over objects, non verbal behaviour
31 of 51
What was La Piere's study on?
Prejudice study
32 of 51
What did it show?
Responses in questionaire 6 months later did not reflect attitudes
33 of 51
What were the figures?
251 establishments visited by Chinese couple, refused service only once
34 of 51
What does Wicker suggest?
Attitudes weakly correlated with behaviour across 45 studies, average 15
35 of 51
What did Gregson and stacey suggest?
small positive correlation between attitudes and alcohol consumption
36 of 51
What are other variables could be involved?
moderator variables, situation, habit, direct experience
37 of 51
What other variable are there?
strong indirect attitude behaviour relationships, through intention
38 of 51
What are three factors that can change intention?
attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control
39 of 51
What can change behaviour though?
Perceived behavioural control alone
40 of 51
What did Armitage and Conner do?
Reviewed 185 TPB studies until 1997
41 of 51
What does an attitude do?
It saves energy as we do not have to figure out from scratch how we should relate to the object or person
42 of 51
WHat is a weak predictor of behavioural intention?
Subjective norm
43 of 51
What is cognitive dissonance?
Unpleasant state of psychological tension generated when a person has two or more cognitions that are inconsistent or do not fit together
44 of 51
Therefore what do people do?
Counter attitudinal behaviour --> feel discomfort/dissonance, strive to reduce tension --> can reduce dissonance by changing inconsistent cognition
45 of 51
What is the first route in the dual route model?
Central route - when message is followed closely, considerable cognitive effort expended
46 of 51
What is the peripheral route?
When arguments not well attended to peripheral cues, attraction rather than information
47 of 51
Why is central route followed?
Argument quality
48 of 51
Why is the peripheral route followed?
Attractiveness, source credibility/ memory
49 of 51
What is systematic processing?
Careful deliberate scanning and processing of available information
50 of 51
What is heuristic processing?
Use cognitive heuristics or short cuts
51 of 51

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is another definition of an attitude?

Back

A general feeling or evaluation - positive or negative about some person, object or issue

Card 3

Front

Who preferred the 'one component model?'

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did they define the attitude as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who preferred the 'two component model'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attitude change resources »