Attachments

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What does attachments mean?
An enduring bond with a significant figure.
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What does separation protest mean?
Where an infant shows distress when the significant figure leaves.
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What does stranger anxiety mean?
Where an infant shows distress when there is an unfamiliar person present.
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What does secure attachments mean?
An attachment with a significant figure where the relationship is based on trust and security.
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What does insecure avoidant attachments mean?
An attachment with a significant figure where the relationship of the infant is independent.
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What does insecure ambivalent attachments mean?
An attachment with a significant figure where the relationship of the infant is clingy and demanding, yet it is awkward.
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What is the core theory called?
Bowlby's theory.
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Is the theory nature or nurture?
Nature
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What does monotropy mean?
An attachment formed with one primary caregiver.
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What does critical period mean?
When the bond is formed for an attachment between 6 months and 3 years. If there is no bond formed then, there will be consequences in the future.
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What does privation mean?
Where a child forms no attachment with a caregiver.
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What does deprivation mean?
Where a child has formed an attachment with a primary caregiver but the attachment has broken due to separation.
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Give a criticism.
With monotropy you can only form one attachment, this is wrong as you can have as many as you like - reductionist.
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Give another criticism.
The theory is out of date as we are now in the 21st century - lacks ecological validity.
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Give a final criticism.
The critical period is too extreme as you can form a bond after 3 years - too simplistic.
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What is the alternative theory called?
The behaviourists.
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Is it nature or nurture?
Nurture.
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What does the theory say about forming bonds? What is this called?
That bonds forms through learning from both parties. This is called operant conditioning.
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What does the theory say about reinforcements?
The attachments are required through reinforcement. Interacting with the baby will reward the parents when the baby smiles or laughs. Also, attention to the baby will reward the baby say, when it is fed.
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Relate reinforcements to secure attachments.
The parents gives the right amount of reinforcement as the parents are sensitive to the baby.
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Relate reinforcements to insure avoidant attachments.
The parents aren't interested and are strict. The parent rejects reinforcement.
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Relate reinforcement to insecure ambivalent attachments.
The baby isn't getting the right type of reinforcement.
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Who did the core theory? Date?
Hazen and Shaver. 1987.
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Give the aim.
To investigate the types of infancy attachments affect adult relationships.
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Give the participants.
ages 14 - 82 in America. 1200 applied, 620 analysed.
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Give the procedure.
A questionnaire with opportunity samples that read a local newspaper where there was the 'love quiz'. Measured: attachment type and their attitude to the most important love relationship. Used checklist and multiple choice questions.
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Give the results for the attachment types - secure.
Secure: happy,friendly relationship. Supporting of their partners faults and least likely to be divorced.
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Give the results for the attachment types - insecure avoidant.
Afraid of intimacy, more highs and lows in relationship and prone to jealousy. They can get along fine on their own.
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Give the results for the attachment types - insecure ambivalent.
Prone to obsession, had extreme sexual attachment and extreme jealously. Most likely to be divorced.
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Give the number for secure.
56%
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Give the number for avoidant.
25%
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Give the number for ambivalent.
19%
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Give the findings for the most important love relationship.
Average length of intimate relationships against attachment type: secure: 10, avoidant: 6 and ambivalent: 5.
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Give the conclusion.
There was a clear relationship between attachments developed at infancy and intimate relationship in adulthood.
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Give a criticism.
It has low control as it was a questionnaire so people could lie. Also, people wouldn't want to know if they had a bad relationship - reductionist.
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Give another criticism.
There is high ecological validity as there was no control. It was in a newspaper - valid.
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Give a final criticism.
It was ethnocentric as it was done in the USA, different cultures may produce different results - less generlisable.
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Give the name of the applications.
Care of children.
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Describe care of children on hospitals.
50 years ago you weren't allowed to see you baby straight after birth- no skin-to-skin touch to start bond forming. You where never allowed to stay in hospital over night if your child was ill - now a bed next to it.
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Give the 2 other care of children for applications.
Care of children in nurseries and in the family.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does separation protest mean?

Back

Where an infant shows distress when the significant figure leaves.

Card 3

Front

What does stranger anxiety mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does secure attachments mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does insecure avoidant attachments mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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