attachment cards

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  • Created by: meesh
  • Created on: 18-01-14 12:18
Konrad Lorenz 1952
He demonstrated that animals arent born with a ready made image of parents. He took gosling eggs, and kept them in an incubator, when hatched the first moving object they saw was Lorenz, did not follow natural mother
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What is imprinting and why does it occur?
It is when after birth the mother knows smell of her own infant & an image is formed of infant. Important for protection,being fed,survival and reproduction in long term
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Define attachment
it is the close emotional relationship/bond between two people, which involves a feeling of well-being and a desire to be close, the attachment made between an infant and caregiver is particularly important.
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What is learning theory?
behaviourists theory- 2 types-Classical = learning with association e.g Pavlov study salivating dogs, food produces pleasure in babys-attachment formation. Operant- learning via rewards,reinforcement-child seeks person who supplys reward-Dollard&mill
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Harlow- 'The origins of love' 1959
Showed need for comfort contact- isolated baby rhesus monkeys spent more time with soft surrogate mother than the wired one with food, when scared/anxious yearned for comfort from cloth mother, shows importance of interaction, not just giving food
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Strenghs and weaknesses of learning theory
main weakness- learning theory proposed food was main cause for attachment, harlows exp proved otherwise. Schaffer&Emerson-observed 60 babies-found werent attached with person who fed them, but person who was most responsive/interacting
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Bowlbys attachment evolutionary theory- 1969
evolved cuz of survival value,innate in children to attach to primary caregiver, 1 attachment=monotropy, provides a safe base, Critical period for attachment to form, social releasers elicit caregiving, template for future relationships,continuity h
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strengths and weaknesses of bowlbys attachment theory-
.
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Monotropy-
The idea that the one relationship that the infant has with the primary attachment figure is one of special significance in emotional development
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social releasers-
a social behaviour or characteristic that elicits a caregiving reaction. Bowlby suggests they are innate e.g. smiling, crying, making cooing noises and the 'cute baby face'
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Mary ainsworth studies- Uganda study (villiage) and Balitmore study (urban)- provided similar results.
Infancy in uganda(1954), two year naturalistic observation. participants= 26 mothers&infants, some mothers were more sensitive to childs needs lead to them being securely attachemt and more independant to explore in mothers presence.
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Ainsworth et al (1969) strange situation- (controlled observation)used to assess nature of attachments, places infant under mild stress (seperation&stranger anxiety)
3types- Securely attached-highly proximety seeking,easily soothed,explores independently. Insecure-avoidant,anxious tend to avoid interaction with others, avoids contact when reunited, ok to explore without caregiver, InsecureResistant-
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effects of attachment types in later childhood
Prior&Glaser(2006)- Secure attached- associated with less emotional dependence&^achievement orientation. Avoidant- related to later aggressiveness, negative affect. Resistant-related to greater anxiety&withdrawn behaviour
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factors influencing attachment type:
Sensitivity- secure- mothers are more sensitive&cooperating&accessible. insecure- mothers unresponsive to crying&less affectionate.
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Cross cultural variations in attachment differ by :
Western cultures = individualist (value independence& importance of the individual). Some are collectivist- emphasise importance of group- they live&work together. They value INTERdependence (depending on eachother e.g japan)
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Evidence for cross cultural similarities:
Ainsworths Uganda study(1967)-infants used mothers as secure base for exploration same as UK, securely attached infants mothers showed greater sensitivity. Tronick at el(1992)found that in africantribe infants were lookedafter/breastfed by different
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Card 2

Front

It is when after birth the mother knows smell of her own infant & an image is formed of infant. Important for protection,being fed,survival and reproduction in long term

Back

What is imprinting and why does it occur?

Card 3

Front

it is the close emotional relationship/bond between two people, which involves a feeling of well-being and a desire to be close, the attachment made between an infant and caregiver is particularly important.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

behaviourists theory- 2 types-Classical = learning with association e.g Pavlov study salivating dogs, food produces pleasure in babys-attachment formation. Operant- learning via rewards,reinforcement-child seeks person who supplys reward-Dollard&mill

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Showed need for comfort contact- isolated baby rhesus monkeys spent more time with soft surrogate mother than the wired one with food, when scared/anxious yearned for comfort from cloth mother, shows importance of interaction, not just giving food

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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