Attachment

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  • Created by: Sopha8
  • Created on: 23-04-15 14:22
Outline learning theory for attachment
classical conditioning: food UCS pleasure UCR so feeder CS. operant conditioning: Hunger causes discomfort, food=removal of discomfort so primary reinforcer, feeder=secondary reinforcer
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Give evidence against learning theory
Harlows-monkey preffered soft surrogate to feeder. Schaffer and Emerson-studied 60 babies, more attched to person who interacts with them most than feeder
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What are the main features of Bowlby's theory?
1)attachment adaptive so evolved by natural selection 2)senstive period 3-6months 3)monotropy 4) internal working model of what to expect of other people 5)continuity hypothesis
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What studies are evidence for features of Bowlby's theory?
Hodges and Tizard- no attachment within sensitve period meant diffiulty with peers later. Schaffer and Emerson found person interacts with child most aids emotional development. Minesota longitudinal study-secure=most popular and empathetic (CH)
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Evaluate Bowlby's theory on attachment
overlooks sibling relationships and other attachment figures, Kegan Teperament hypothsis-friendly person prime factor in secure relationship
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What does the strange situation suggest about the characteristic of an infant with secure/insecure attachment types?
secure-willing to explore, low seperation anxiety, sociable. Insecure avoidant-avoid social interactions and intimacy, indifferent to seperation. Insecure resistant-seeks then rejects, high seperation anxiety and social anxiety
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Evaluate the strange situation
good-Kaplan and Main tested at 18 months then 6, most same type, high inter-realiability. Bad-cultrally bias, one attachment figure, unfamiliar setting causing distress to infant=low ecological validity and ethical issues
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Explain the factors influencing attachment type
1)sensitivity- secure=mother sensive and coopoerative. Avoidant=mother rejecting and unresponsive to crying. Resistant=mother less affectionate and occupied. 2) temperament
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Outline a study on the cultural variations in attachment
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg meta-analysis: 32 studies, 8 countries, strange situation. more variation within countries. Western-more avoidant, non-western-more resistant
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Describe the issues with the meta-analysis on cultural variations of attachment
strange situation culturally bias, brought up in different ways e.g Japenese culture secure attahcment based on dependence, German taught to be independant (Grossman et al). Rothbaum et al need for protection universal,attachment theories specific
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What are the possible long term effects of privation? what studies are evidence for them?
1) disinhibited attachment (Hodges and Tizard) 2) deprevation dwarfism- physicall undeveloped (Gardner- girl who wasnt hugged) 3) poor parenting (Harlows monkey)
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Decribe and evalutate Hodges and Tizard's study
longitudinal study -age of 16, restored children less likely to form attachment with parents to adopted, both social problems, disihbitied attachment. Good- EV Bad-already formed attachment before insistution, pulling out of study not representative
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Name a study that is evidence for senstive period and evaluate it
Rutter- Romanian orphans if adopted after 6 months showed disinhibted attachement. evaluation-high ecological validty, so external validity. individual differences as some recovered well-other factors e.g good care, no oberservation intoW adult life
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What is the PDD model?
Behaviours of protest, dispair, detachment from temp sepration. Robertson and Robertson-John in residential day care over birth, outburst of anger with mother after where as children in Robertson home where alternate emotional care provided
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What study shows the negative effects of day care on peer relations?
Belsky and Rovine: Infants observed in strange situation, those who had been in day care more likely to have insecure attachment. Limitation- strange situation lacks ecological validity.
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What study shows the postive effects of day care on peer relations?
Clarke-Stewart: observed 150 2-3 year olds the ones who had experiance of day care where better at coping in social situations to those who had stayed at home.
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What study shows the impacts of day care on aggression?
The EPPE longitudinal study: 3000 children observed, more time in day care=rated higher for levles of agressive behaviour by teacher than home children but quality of day care effects this greatly and often had better cognitive/social development
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How has attachment research been influential?
Study on seperation has influenced hospitals to allow better visiting arrangment. Pressure for adoption in first week of birth. Better knowledge of care giving for parents
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How has day care research been influential?
Mininal staff turnover (John from R&R study couldnt make attachments with staff). EPPE study found corrletion with better care and more qualified staff.
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What is meant by sensitive care?
Responding to infants needs and being affectionate
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Card 2

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Give evidence against learning theory

Back

Harlows-monkey preffered soft surrogate to feeder. Schaffer and Emerson-studied 60 babies, more attched to person who interacts with them most than feeder

Card 3

Front

What are the main features of Bowlby's theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What studies are evidence for features of Bowlby's theory?

Back

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Card 5

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Evaluate Bowlby's theory on attachment

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