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an emotional tie or relationship between two people, shown in their behaviour.
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set of feeling that tie one person to another
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How do we see attachment?
Seeking proximity, distress on separation, joy on reunion, orientation of behaviour.
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Asocial Stage
0-6 weeks old
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Indiscriminate attachments
6 weeks-7 months old
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Specific attachments
7+months old
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Multiple attachments
10+ months old
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One special attachment with the mother figure
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Attachments are adaptive which, gives humans an adaptive advantage.
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Critical Period
0-2.5 years old is when an infant needs to make an attachment with a caregiver.
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Social Releasers
Physical and behavioural aspects of infants unlock parents tendencies to care.
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Internal Working Model
The monotropic attachment sets an example of what the rest of their relationships will be like.
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Continuity Hypothesis
there is a link between an infant's early attachment and their behaviour later in life.
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Positive reinforcement
A reward. Something which increases the likelihood that the behaviour will be repeated.
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Negative reinforcement
When a behaviour or response switches off something unpleasant.
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Unconditioned stimulus
an aspect of the environment which produces an automatic response. i.e dogs drooling at food.
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Learning Theory
Attachments are based on the principles of operant and classical conditioning.
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Operant conditioning
Any behaviour that produces a positive reinforcement will be repeated.
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Classical Conditioning
Based on learning through association. i.e. Pavlov's dogs
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Researchers analyse results of many different studies that used a similar procedure. Collects only quantitate data.
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Differences in babies that seem visible and innate from birth
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Aspects of temperament
Activity, Emotionality, Sociability
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The temperament types
Easy, Slow to warm up, difficult
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Disorganised attachment
inconsistent behaviour in the strange situation
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Secure Attachment
Distress on mothers departure but welcomed back. Wary of strangers. Happy to explore.
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Insecure Avoidant
distress on mothers departure but no welcome back. Rejects stranger. Keeps distance and avoids closeness
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Insecure Resistant
distress on mothers departure, rejects her return. Alternates between seeking comfort and wanting distance
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Collectivist Culture
any culture that depends on interdependence
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Imposed Ethic
a technique/theory developed in one culture and the used to study another culture
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The PDD model
Protest, Despair, Detachment
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Long Term effects of separation anxiety
Extreme clinginess, detachment
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Factors affecting response to separation
Age, Type of attachment, Gender, Quality of care, experience with separation, temporary caregiver
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Disinhibited attachment
Attention seeking, lack of stranger danger, inappropriate, lack of reliance on caregivers
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Extent of recovery from privation relies on:
Quality of institution care, age, quality of care afterwards, experiences in later life
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set of feeling that tie one person to another



Card 3


Seeking proximity, distress on separation, joy on reunion, orientation of behaviour.


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Card 4


0-6 weeks old


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Card 5


6 weeks-7 months old


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