Attachment

  • Maccoby
  • Learning Theory
  • Conditioning & reinforcement
  • Shaffer & Emerson
  • Harlow, Skinner, Pavlov
  • Evolutionary Theory
  • Lorenz
HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 02-01-15 19:06
Name the 4 behaviours which Maccoby (1980) says define attachment
seeking proximity, distress on separation, joy on reunion & General orientation of behaviour.
1 of 65
Define attachment
An emotional and reciprocal bond shared between 2 people
2 of 65
Who came up with the Learning theory
Shaffer & Emerson
3 of 65
According to the learning theory how do attachments form
operant and classical conditioning
4 of 65
learning by association is what type of attachment?
classical
5 of 65
What is operant conditioning?
learning by reinforcement
6 of 65
rewarded behaviour is usually what type of reinforcement?
positive
7 of 65
Behaviour that stops something unpleasant happening is what type of reinforcement?
negative
8 of 65
Name three studies that provides evidence for the learning theory
Harlow's Monkey's, Skinner's Rats, Shaffer & Emerson.
9 of 65
wanting to be near each other and & spend time together is what type of attachment behaviour?
seeking proximity
10 of 65
Outline what distress on separation is in regards to behavioural characteristics of an attachment
being upset when you leave the individual
11 of 65
What does joy on reunion mean?
being happy to see the attachment figure again
12 of 65
What does general orientation of behaviour refer too?
the constant want to be with or involved in the other persons life.
13 of 65
Shaffer & Emerson conducted what kind of study?
longitudinal
14 of 65
What is stranger anxiety?
unhappiness when separated from a certain person
15 of 65
according to Shaffer & Emerson what age do infants develop a preferance for a single attachemnt figure?
7 months
16 of 65
What is it called when a baby forms a bond with a person who is responding to their signals?
sensitive responsiveness
17 of 65
name the phase of classical conditioning (before, during, after) where there is an unconditional stimulus and an unconditional response
before conditioning
18 of 65
what happens during conditioning?
Neutral stimulus + Unconditional stimulus = Unconditioned response
19 of 65
The conditioned stimulus and conditioned response are created at what stage of classical conditioning
After conditioning
20 of 65
Name an experiment which illustrates how classical conditioning works
pavlovs dogs
21 of 65
Name an experiment associated with operant conditioning
Skinner's Rats
22 of 65
Name an experiment which disproved the learning theory
Harlow's Monkey
23 of 65
Name the 7 concepts which make up the evolutionary theory
monotropy, adaptive & Innate, secure base, continuity hypothesis, internal working model, imprinting, sensitive period & social releases.
24 of 65
What did Bowlby mean by adaptive and innate
the need to form an attachment which we are born with in order to survive
25 of 65
Name a peice of evidence which provides evidene for the adaptive & Innate concept
Lorenz Geese
26 of 65
What did Lorenz Geese focus on?
imprinting
27 of 65
Attachments must occur in what period?
the sensitive period
28 of 65
what encourages a care giver to attach to a child?
social releasers
29 of 65
what is a secure base?
a necessary part of attachment that provides a comfortable environment for the infant.
30 of 65
what does monotropy suggest
that one attachment is more important than all others
31 of 65
Name a peice of evidence which supports Monotropy
Shaffer & Emerson
32 of 65
What does the Internal working model do
provide a base for all further relationships
33 of 65
what does the continuity hypothesis suggest?
that all future attachments will be similar to the first ones we form.
34 of 65
Name a peice of evidence for the sensitive period
Klaus & Kennel
35 of 65
The internal working model is supported by what evidence?
Hazen & Shaver's love quiz
36 of 65
Who came up with the strange situation?
Ainsworth
37 of 65
name the first 4 stages of ainsworths study
1) mother and infant enter, infant plays. 2) Stranger enters and talks to mother 3) Stranger tries to interact with baby 4)mother leaves and stranger offers comfort if needed.
38 of 65
name stages 5-8 of ainsworths study
5) mother returns stranger leaves 6) mother leaves baby alone 7) stranger returns and offers comfort if needed 8) mother returns stranger leaves
39 of 65
Name the three types of atatchemnt according to ainsworth
secure, insecure avoidant and insecure resistant.
40 of 65
name the 4th attachemnt type outlined by main & solomon
Insecure disorganised
41 of 65
What is the temperament hypothesis
innate characteristics a baby is born with
42 of 65
what is the sensitivity hypothesis
where the sensitivity and responsiveness of the mother determines the type of attachment formed.
43 of 65
What is the aim of ainsworths study?
to look at different attachment types
44 of 65
What type of observation did Ainsworth use?
controlled
45 of 65
Name the 3 participants in Ainsworths study
baby mother stranger
46 of 65
Ainsworth assessed the quality of attachment on the childs reponse to specific episodes which were
separation anxiety, reunion behaviour and stranger anxiety
47 of 65
how would a securely attached baby act during separation anxiety?
distressed e.g crying
48 of 65
how would a securely attached baby act during stranger anxiety?
Avoidant of stranger when alone but friendly when mother was present
49 of 65
how would a securely attached baby act during reunion with mother?
Positive and happy when mother returns
50 of 65
how would a Insecure resistant attached baby act during separation anxiety?
Infant is seriously distressed
51 of 65
how would a Insecure resistant attached baby act when around the stranger?
Infant avoids stranger and is scared of them
52 of 65
how would a Insecure resistant attached baby act during reunion with the mother?
child approaches mother but resists contact and may push away
53 of 65
how would a Insecure avoidant attached baby act during separation anxiety?
Infant isn't distressed
54 of 65
how would a Insecure avoidant attached baby act around the stranger?
infant is OK with the stranger & plays normally when teh stranger is present
55 of 65
how would a Insecure avoidant attached baby act when reunited with their mother?
baby shows little interest when mother returns
56 of 65
Type B attachment is what?
Secure
57 of 65
Type A attachment is what?
Insecure Avoidant
58 of 65
Type C attachment is what?
Insecure resistant
59 of 65
name the 5 factors that can effect what type of attachment is formed
the parents response to needs, genetics/upbringing, other attachment, background, siblings
60 of 65
an insensitive mother is likely to have what type of attachment to their baby?
Insecure
61 of 65
a sensitive mother is likely to have what type of attachment to their baby?
secure
62 of 65
who argued that the innate characteristics we have determines our attachment type?
Kagan 1982
63 of 65
Name 2 ethical issues of Ainsworths SS
puts the baby in distress & doesn't protect participants
64 of 65
What is a temperament?
inherited aspects of characteristics (e.g Anger like the dad or kind like the mother etc)
65 of 65

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define attachment

Back

An emotional and reciprocal bond shared between 2 people

Card 3

Front

Who came up with the Learning theory

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

According to the learning theory how do attachments form

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

learning by association is what type of attachment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attachment resources »