Attachment

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  • Created by: Esme
  • Created on: 04-05-14 17:44
What is the definition of attachment?
"A binding, reciprocal affection or emotional tie between people"
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What does SODP stand for?
Seek proximity, Orientate behaviour, Distress when separated, Pleasure when reunited
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Describe Type A of Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis
ignore child, left to entertain themselves
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Describe Type B of Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis
sensitive, correctly interpret signals
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Describe Type C of Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis
inconsistent, bad at reading signals
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Who came up with the temperament hypothesis?
Kagan
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What does cultural bias mean?
assume all cultures are the same
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What does ethnocentric mean?
own culture is better than others
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Who studied the strange situation in different cultures?
Van Ijezdoorn and Kroonenerg
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What was the procedure in Van Ijezdoorn and Kroonenberg's study?
32 studies, 8 countries, 2000 children, strange situation
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What did Van Ijezdoorn and Kroonenerg find?
Germany 49% Type A, Kibbutz 5% Type A, Japan 0% Type A and 32% Type C.
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One positive and one negative of Van Ijezdoorn and Kroonenerg's study?
contribute to nature/nurture debate but the observer and procedure could be culturally biased
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Who observed the Ik tribe in Uganda?
Turnbull
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What did Turnbull find?
parents have negative attitude to children
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What were the reasons for Turnbull's findings?
bad living conditions = selfish & absence of parental love
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One positive and one negative of Turnbull's study?
he didn't interfere, but you can't generalise the results
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Who did the Strange Situation?
Ainsworth and Bell
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What is the procedure for the Strange Situation?
m+c, s+m+c, m+c, c, c+s, c+s+m. 3 minutes at a time and videoed behaviour
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Define Type A in the strange situation
Don't seek proximity, no separation anxiety, no stranger anxiety, no reunion behaviour
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What was the % of type A's in the strange situation?
20-25%
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Define Type B in the strange situation
independent, seek proximity, moderate separation anxiety, moderate stranger anxiety, accept comfort when reunited
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What was the % of type B's in the strange situation?
60-75%
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Define Type C in the strange situation
intensely seek proximity, extreme separation anxiety, extreme separation anxiety, resist comfort when reunited
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What was the % of type C's in the strange situation?
3%
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2 positives and 4 negatives of the strange situation study?
reliable, stricty controlled BUT Main et al. - type D; strange environment; unethical; observer bias
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Who did the Love Quiz?
Hazan and Shaver
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What was the procedure for the Love Quiz study?
self selected study, participants aged 14-82, did the love quiz
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What were the findings in the Love Quiz study?
early attachment types match later ones. 60% type B, 20-25% type A, 15-20% type C
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What were the conclusions for the Love Quiz study?
PCG attachment affects later attachments and personality
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1 positive and 1 negative of the Love Quiz study?
+big age range +standardised questions BUT -retrospective - social desirability
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What are the two types of conditioning in the learning theory
Classical and operant
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Outline classical conditioning
[US -> UR] ; [US -> NS -> UR] ; [CS -> CR]
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Who came up with operant conditioning?
Dollard and Miller
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How does operant conditioning work?
need to satisfy hunger drive so cry-> food is drive reduction (reward) -> crying = reward.
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What is the primary reinforcer and secondary reinforcer in operant conditioning?
Primary = food, secondary = mother
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Who criticised operant conditioning?
Schaffer and Emerson and Harry Harlow
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Who experimented on resus monkeys?
Harry Harlow
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What were the conclusions to the study on resus monkeys?
contact comfort is important, against Bowlby's learning theory, reciprocal relationships are the healthiest
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What are Bowlby's 3 main concepts of evolutionary theory?
1. Critical period 2. Social releasers 3. Preference to one care giver
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Define Internal Working Model
a template for future relationships including a model of how you and other people are likely to behave
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What did Parke say?
we need a close network of attachments. Father = physical stimulation, Mother = soothe different needs
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Who did studies on the ST effects of deprivation?
Robertson and Bowlby and Roberston and Robertson
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Who did studies on the LT effects of deprivation?
Bowlby (44 thieves) and Rutter (discord)
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Name 2 privation studies
Susan Curtiss ~ Genie, and Koluchova ~ Czech Twins
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How old was Genie when she was found?
13 1/5 years
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What were Genie's IQ results in 1971,72,74 and 77?
38, 53, 65, 74
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How long were the Czech twins kept in the cellar?
for 5 years
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Name two studies on orphanages and privation
Goldfarb and Hodges & Tizard
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Who did studies on the effects of day care on aggression?
Shea and NICHD
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does SODP stand for?

Back

Seek proximity, Orientate behaviour, Distress when separated, Pleasure when reunited

Card 3

Front

Describe Type A of Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe Type B of Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe Type C of Maternal Sensitivity Hypothesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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