Attachment

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what is attachment?
An innate 2 way emotional bond between infant and caregiver.
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Learning theory, classical conditioning of attachment.
Proposes that food (UCS) naturally produces a feeling of pleasure (UCR).The feeder (NS) becomes associated with the food when the infant is fed. The mother produces a sense of pleasure as food is rewarding and this feeling is associated with the mum.
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Pavlov
He used dogs to explain classical conditioning as he noticed they started to salivate before they were fed. psychologists then used this example to explain classical conditioning forming attachment.
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What year did Dollard and Miller, propose operant conditioning?
1950
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How is attachment created through operant condtioning?
When an infant is hungry, they feel uncomfortable a drive is produced to reduce the discomfort.when fed the drive is reduced thus stimulates pleasure. therfore food is rewarding (primary reinforcer) and the mum is 2ndry reinforcer. baby wants mum=fo
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What does Harlow (1959) suggest?
Attachment is not based on food, disproves 'cupboard love'. Resus monkeys had the choice of 2 monkeys, lactating or cloth monkey, they chose cloth as it provided comfort suggesting attachment is based on comfort not food.
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what are the Issues with animal studies?
can't always generalise results to humans, as biologically/cognitively different. Unethical as animals do not have the right to withdraw or provide consent.
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What did shafer and Emerson find?
observed 60 infants from Glasgow, they found no link between provision of food and attachment related behaviour, they found most infants seemed attached to who interacted with them the most. (cared for emotional needs)
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What was Bowlbys evolutionary theory of attachment?
That attachment is innate, and has evolved because of its survival value. it is adaptive to have an attachment, infants give off social releasers(baby face hyp) whith caregivers respond to emotionally. primary care giver is called monotrophy and most
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what is the internal working model, link to continuity hypothesis?
Learned experiences, of what to expect in the future, know what to expect in relationships, from this the continuity hypothesis is created that there is continuity between attachment and future life experiences
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what is the temperament hypothesis ?
Kagen proposed that infants are born with certain personalities, therefore those with happy personalities tend to be securely attached.This goes against Bowlby as he says the relationship with primary caregiver forms the type of attachment
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What is the research by Tronick et al (1992)?
shows Primary attachment (monotrophy) is univeral. Observed the Efe tribe in Zaire, child rearing practices were shares so breastfeeding each others children. infants slept next to biological mother and found this is who they were primarily attached
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Describe the Strange situation. (Ainsworth and Whittig, 1969)
systematical method,so that it can be repeated, observed mothers and infants play( aged 9-18 months) under mild stress, 8 main stages, looked at secure base, reunion behaviour, stranger anxiety, separation anxiety.
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what were the findings of the strange situation?
3 Types of attachment was concluded. Secure attachment, insecure-avoidant, and insecure-resistant.
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What attachment type did Main and soloman propose?
The 4th one, Insecure-disorganised.
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Strengths of Strange situation
It showed high inter-rater reliability, correlation of 0.94, suggesting the panal agreed strongly with each other about each catergorised attachment type and so implies results would be similar if infant observed by another person.
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Weaknesses of the strange situation
Lacks ecological validity due to the lab enviroment, infants may have reacted differently at home, also Main and weston believe you are just testing the relationship with the mother, not the attachment type in general. unethical as children stressed.
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Learning theory, classical conditioning of attachment.

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Proposes that food (UCS) naturally produces a feeling of pleasure (UCR).The feeder (NS) becomes associated with the food when the infant is fed. The mother produces a sense of pleasure as food is rewarding and this feeling is associated with the mum.

Card 3

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Pavlov

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Card 4

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What year did Dollard and Miller, propose operant conditioning?

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Card 5

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How is attachment created through operant condtioning?

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