Attachment

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  • Created by: millie
  • Created on: 11-01-14 00:40
What is classical conditioning?
Learning through association
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How did Ian Pavlov discover classical conditioning?
He was researching the salivation reflex in dogs. He noticed they salivated (CR) before they were fed, when they heard the door open (NS). They associated this sound with food (UCS).
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How can classical conditioning be used as an explanation of attachment?
Food (UCS) given to a baby will provide it pleasure (UCR). The baby associates the 'feeder' (NS) with the actual food. The feeder then becomes the conditioned stimulus who causes the conditioned response of pleasure. This is the attachment.
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What are the strengths of the learning theory?
Infants do learn attachment through association and reinforcement but this may not be the food. It could be that when the caregiver is responsive, this encourages attachment.
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What are the limitations of the leaning theory?
In Harlow's experiment with infant rhesus monkeys, the infants spent more time with the cloth-covered monkey rather than the 'lactating monkey'. They clung to the cloth-covered monkey when scared.
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How does Schaffer and Emerson's findings go against the learning theory?
In their controlled observation, they found that out of 60 babies, infants were not more attached to the person that fed them. Strongest attachments were to most responsive and interactive person.
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How does Tronick et al.'s cross-cultural study support Bowlby's theory?
The infants in the Efe from Zaire who were looked after & breastfed by different women still had one primary attachment. Supports idea that attachment is innate and it is universal.
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How does Schaffer and Emerson's study support Bowlby's monotropy idea?
Found that although infants had multiple attachments, they always had one primary attachment - most often the mother.
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How does Harlow's study support Bowlby's continuity hypothesis?
Found that the monkeys brought up unresponsive wire mothers -therefore no secure attachment- developed into emotionally maladjusted adults.
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What does Kagan suggest instead of the continuity hypothesis?
The temperament hypothesis (attachment explained in terms of innate temperament types) Infants with easy temperament = likely to become securely attached. Difficult temperament = likely to become insecurely attached.
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Who created the Strange Situation and what is it used for?
Mary Ainsworth and it is used to find out attachment types.
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What does the Strange Situation test?
Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety.
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What were the first 4 episodes that they assessed behaviour in?
1.Parent and infant play 2.Parent sits while infant plays 3.Stranger enters and talks to parent 4.Parent leaves, infant plays, stranger offers comfort 5.Parent returns, greets infant, offers comfort, stranger leaves 6.Parent leaves 7.Stranger en
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What were the next 4 episodes that they assessed behaviour in?
4.Parent leaves, infant plays, stranger offers comfort 5.Parent returns, greets infant, offers comfort, stranger leaves 6.Parent leaves 7.Stranger enters, offers comfort 8.Parent returns, greets infant, offers comfort.
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What were the behaviours they assessed?
1.Proximity and contact-seeking 2.Contact-maintaining 3.Proximity and interaction-resisting 4.Contact and interaction-resisting 5.Search behaviours
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What were Ainsworth's findings?
Proximity-seeking and contact-maintaining behaviours increased during seperation and when the stranger entered. Contact-resisting and proximity-avoiding behaviours didn't occur often towards the caregiver after separation.
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Card 2

Front

How did Ian Pavlov discover classical conditioning?

Back

He was researching the salivation reflex in dogs. He noticed they salivated (CR) before they were fed, when they heard the door open (NS). They associated this sound with food (UCS).

Card 3

Front

How can classical conditioning be used as an explanation of attachment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the strengths of the learning theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the limitations of the leaning theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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