Attachment Key Words

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  • Created by: Tasc24
  • Created on: 21-11-15 13:26
Attachment
An emotional bond between two people. It is a two-way process that endures over time. It leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking, and serves the function of protecting an infant.
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Caregiver
Any person who is providing care for a child, such as a parent, grandparent, sibling, other family member, child minder, and so on.
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Interactional synchrony
When two people interact they tend to mirror what the other is doing in terms of their facial and body movements. This includes imitating emotions as well as behaviours. This is described as synchrony - when 2 or more things move in the same pattern.
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Reciprocity
Responding to the action of another with a similar action, where the actions of one partner elicit a response from the other partner. The responses are not necessarily similar as in interactional synchrony.
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Multiple attachment
Having more than one attachment figure.
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Primary attachment figure
The person who has formed the closest bond with a child, demonstrated by the intensity of the relationship. This is usually a child's biological mother, but other people can fulfil the role.
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Separation anxiety
The distress shown by an infant when separated from his/her caregiver. This is not necessarily the child's biological mother.
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Stranger anxiety
The distress shown by an infant when approached or picked up by someone who is unfamiliar.
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Imprinting
An innate readiness to develop a strong bond with the mother which takes place during a specific time in development, probably the first few hours after birth. If it doesn't happen at this time, it probably will not happen.
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Classical conditioning
Learning through association. A neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response.
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Learning theory
The name given to a group of explanations (classical and operant conditioning) which explain behaviour in terms of learning rather than any inborn tendencies or higher order thinking.
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Operant conditioning
Learning through reinforcement.
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Social learning theory
Learning through observing others and imitating behaviours that are rewarded.
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Continuity hypothesis
The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting and socially confident adults.
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Critical period
A biologically determined period of time during which certain characteristics can develop. Outside of this window such development will not be possible.
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Internal working model
A mental model of the world which enables individuals to predict and control their environment. In the case of attachment the model relates to a person's expectations about relationships.
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Monotropy (monotropic)
The idea that the one relationship that the infant has with his/her primary attachment figure is of special significance in emotional development.
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Social releaser
A social behaviour or characteristic that elicits caregiving and leads to attachment.
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Insecure-avoidant
A type of attachment which describes those children who tend to avoid social interaction and intimacy with others.
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Insecure-resistant
A type of attachment which describes those infants who both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction.
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Secure attachment
This is a strong and contented attachment of an infant to his or her caregiver, which develops as a result of sensitive responding by the caregiver to the infant's needs. Securely attached infants are comfortable with social interaction and intimacy.
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Strange Situation
A controlled observation designed to test attachment security.
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Cultural variations
The ways that different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices, and the effects these practices have on development and behaviour.
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Deprivation
To be deprived is to lose something. In the context of child development deprivation refers to the loss of emotional care that is normally provided by a caregiver.
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Institutionalisation
The effect of institutional care. In attachment, the word focuses specifically on how time spent in an institution such as an orphanage can affect the development of children. The possible effects include social, mental, and physical underdevelopment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Any person who is providing care for a child, such as a parent, grandparent, sibling, other family member, child minder, and so on.

Back

Caregiver

Card 3

Front

When two people interact they tend to mirror what the other is doing in terms of their facial and body movements. This includes imitating emotions as well as behaviours. This is described as synchrony - when 2 or more things move in the same pattern.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Responding to the action of another with a similar action, where the actions of one partner elicit a response from the other partner. The responses are not necessarily similar as in interactional synchrony.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Having more than one attachment figure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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