Attachment, Key studies and Pyschologist names

Brazleton
Said interactional synchrony was like a dance where the partner responded to each other's moves.
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Meltzof and Moore
Support for interactional synchrony, facial expression study
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Crotwell et al.
Said that both interactional synchrony and reciprocity were important foundations of high quality attachments.
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Schaffer and Emerson
longitudinal study, 60 babies and mothers from a working class background in Glasgow, researching into whether their was a common attachment formation amongst infants.
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Asocial attachment stage
Babies are seen to act the same towards objects as they do humans. This takes place in the first few weeks.
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Indiscriminate attachment stage
Babies display more social behaviour with a preference to people over objects. This takes place between 2-7 months.
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Specific Attachments
Within this stage an infant forms a specific attachment with a caregiver (primary caregiver = mother) and presents stranger and separation anxiety when the primary caregiver is not present.
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Multiple attachment
This stage is where an infant fomrs secondary attachments. These attachments are usually with the infant's father and close family members and takes place around a year old.
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The role of father's in attachment, Grossman
He carried out a longitudinal study looking at parent's behaviour and its relationship to the quality of the child's attachment; the quality of attachment recieved from the father was far less important than the attachment recieved from the mother.
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Field
Showed that father's can be primary caregivers too, they were just seen in his study to take on the role of the nurturer (taking on the mother's role). Nurture is the key element to forming attachments, not the gender!
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McCallum and Golombox
Infants who grew up in the same sex male families didnt develop differently to those who has two gender parent families, showing that gender again doesn't matter and a male can be the primary caregiver.
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Lorenz
Imprinting, Greylag Geese, found the importance of a critical period, 4-25 hours, formed attachments when infants kept close contact to the first moving object they saw.
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Harlow
16 Rhesus Monkey's, four conditions, soft mother monkey and hard wire monkey, monkeys were seen to prefer the soft monkey depsite whether it fed them or not, presents that attachment is more concerned with emotional security and comfort than food.
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Dollard and Miller
Classical and operant conditioning, explained attachment through the use of the learning theory.
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Classical conditioning as an explanation of attachment
being fed= primary drive, eating to reduce hunger = pleasure and a drive reduction, attachment = secondary drive, UCS = food = UCR= pleasure, UCS + NS (mother) = UCR = pleasure SO, CS = caregiver = CR pleasure and formation of an attachment.
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Operant conditioning as an explanation of attachment
Forms attachment through vicarious reinforcement,reward=mother feeding infant, causes baby to continue behaviour (crying) that recieves the reward of being fed,food=primary reinforcer and attachment=secondary reinforcer,baby crying
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Bowlby's Monotropy theory
Adaptive= attachment gives us an 'adaptive advantage to survive, Social releasers= eg. big eyes = more likely to attachment= survival, Critical period= 0-2.5yrs, Monotropy=tendancy to attach to one person, usually mother and Internal Working Model
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Bailey et al.
Internal Working Model, 99 mothers with 1yr olds on quality of attachment, if mothers and thier mothers had poor attachments, mothers and thier babies more likely to have poor attachments.
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Margaret Ainsworth
Strange Situation
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Secure Attachment
explore happily but reguarly return back to caregiver, show proximity and secure base bahviour, show moderate separation and stranger anxiety, accept comfort when caregiver returns.
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Insecure Avoidant
Explore freely but do not seek proximity seeking or secure base behaviour, show little effort or reaction when caregiver leaves and returns, don't show stranger anxiety.
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Insecure Resistant
Seek greater proximity than others= explore less, show huger stranger anxiety and separation distress, resist comfort when united with their caregiver.
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Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg
meta-analysis study, 32 studies of the strange situation, 15 in the USA, looking if types of attachment vary in cultures.
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What type of attachment was found in collectivistic cultures?
most common was secure attachment (50% in China) and then more likely to be insecure resistant
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What type of attachment was found in individualistic cultures?
most common was secure attachment (75% in the UK) and then more likely to be insecure avoidant.
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Bowlby's Maternal deprivation theory
It was essential for the continual presence of nurture from a mother or surrogate mother to ensure an infant has normal psychological development.
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Separation
when a child is not in the presence of the care of their primary caregiver.
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Deprivation
When a child looses an element of their care due to prolonged separation and no continuation of the emotional bond between the infant and caregiver.
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Deprivation critical period
the first 30 months of a baby's life are deemed their critical period, to which if a child is separated in this time period and no substitute care is offered = psychological harm
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44 Thieves study
44 criminal teenagers and their mothers were interviewed, control group also. Out of the 44 thieves, 14 had affectionless psychopathy and 12 of these also had prolonged separation from their mothers in the first 2 yrs of their lives, 2 in control
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Privation
The child has never attached at all in early childhood.
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Examples of privation, Curtis (1977)
Genie denied of human interaction until she was 13, although Genie was seen to massively improve she would never be able to become 'normal' again and was moved into a home for the learning disabled.
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Example of privation, Koluchova
A case of two twin boys, regularly beaten by their mothers and starved and locked in a cellar, discovered at the age of 7 yrs. Fostered by two sisters, developed average intelligence and formed strong family bonds, early damaged = totally repaired.
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Rutter et al, Roman Orphanage adoptee study
165 Romanian Orphans, longitudinal study after being adopted in Britain, assessed at 4,6,11, and 15yrs old, control group of 52 adoptees used, all children at first showed signs of mental retardation.
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Romanian Orphanage adoptee recovery rates
adopted before 6 months = IQ102, after 6 months =IQ86, after 2yrs =IQ77, after 6 months, disinhibited attachment, clinginess, attention seeking, before 6 months didn't show this, able to catch up intellectually by the age of 4.
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Supporting Studies into childhood and later adult relationships
Wilson and Smith, study on 196 children aged 7-11 from London, questionnaire asking about bullying, securely attached less likely to be bullied and good at forming friendships, insecure avoidant most likely to be bullied.
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Hazan and Shavers, love quiz study
620 replies to a love quiz in an American newspaper, asked about most important relationship, love experience and attachment type, 56% securely attached, good relationships, 25% insecure avoidant, jealous + fear intimacy, 19% insecure-resistant
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Support for interactional synchrony, facial expression study

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Meltzof and Moore

Card 3

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Said that both interactional synchrony and reciprocity were important foundations of high quality attachments.

Back

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Card 4

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longitudinal study, 60 babies and mothers from a working class background in Glasgow, researching into whether their was a common attachment formation amongst infants.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Babies are seen to act the same towards objects as they do humans. This takes place in the first few weeks.

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