Attachment key studies AO1

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  • Created by: Nicole
  • Created on: 12-05-16 19:17
Who found interactional synchrony in infants as young as 2 weeks old
Meltzoff and Moore (1977)- an adult displayed one of three facial expressions and the child's response was filmed
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Who studied the the effects of interactional synchrony on building attachments?
Isabella et al (1989)- observed 20 mothers and infants- found high levels of synchrony were associated with better quality attachments
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Who described reciprocity as a dance?
Brazleton et al (1975)- because its just like a couple's dance where each partner responds to each other's moves
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Who found that primary attachment was usually with mothers but sometimes with both?
Schafer and Emerson (1964)- found majority had attachment to others, 3% had attachment to father
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Who found that attachment with mothers most related with teen attachments?
Grossmann (2002)- longitudinal study- found that the quality of attachment with the father was less important in the attachment type of the teenagers than the quality of the attachment with their mothers.
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Who studied fathers as he primary caregiver?
Field (1978)- filmed 4-month-old babies and found that primary caregiver fathers, like mothers, spent more time smiling, imitating and holding infants than secondary caregiver fathers.
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Who studied the stages of attachment?
Schaffer and Emerson (1964)- 60 Glasgow babies- measured separation anxiety and stranger anxiety through asking the mother questions. Found 50% of babies showed separation anxiety between 25 and 32 weeks of age
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Who conducted the animal studies?
Lorenz (1952)- geese imprinting// Harlow (1958) Importance of contact comfort
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Who came up with the learning theory?
Dollard and Miller (1950)- 'cupboard love'- the importance of food
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Who suggested the drive reduction to the learning theory?
Sears et al (1957)- suggested that as caregivers provide food, the primary drive of hunger becomes generalised to them.
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Explanations for attachment studies
Dollard and Miller// Bowlby// Lorenz// Harlow
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Who came up with the mono tropic theory of attachment?
Bowlby (1958, 1969)-suggested that attachment is innate and mono tropic (only one primary attachment figure), social releasers, critical period of 30 months, IWM of relationships
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Who conducted the main Strange Situation?
Ainsworth (1969)- procedure had seven episodes each lasting three minutes- found that 60-75% were secure, 20-25% were insecure-avoidant, 3% were insecure-resistant
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Cultural variations in attachment (key study 1)
van ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)- meta analysis of strange situations in 32 studies in 8 countries- found secure attachment was most common classification worldwide. variation within countries was 150% greater than that in between countries
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Cultural variations in attachment (key study 2)
Simonelli et al (2014)- assessed 76 12-month-olds using ** (mothers with varied education/ professions)
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Who conducted a study into maternal deprivation?
Bowlby- 44 thieves study- affection-less psychopathy
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Romanian orphan studies (study 1)
Rutter et al (2011)- ERA study-longitudinal study of 165 Romanian orphans who had experienced insitutionalisation
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Romanian orphan studies (study 2)
Zeanah et al (2005)- Bucharest Early Intervention project- 95 children ages 12-31 months who experienced institutionalisation for most of their lives compared to control group of 50 children who had never experiences institutionalisation
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Who studied influence of early attachments on later relationships?
Hazen and Shaver (1987)- analysed 620 replies to a 'love quiz', assessed them on: respondents' current and most important relationships, general love experiences, attachment type
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Who studied the the effects of interactional synchrony on building attachments?

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Isabella et al (1989)- observed 20 mothers and infants- found high levels of synchrony were associated with better quality attachments

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Who described reciprocity as a dance?

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Who found that primary attachment was usually with mothers but sometimes with both?

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Who found that attachment with mothers most related with teen attachments?

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