attachment ; introduction

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- reciprocity
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from birth, babies and caregivers spend time in what type of interaction?
intense and pleasurable
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what fraction of time do mothers typically pick up on and respond to infant alertness?
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from around how many months does this interaction tend to be increasingly frequent?
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and involves close attention ot each others' which two features?
verbal signs / facial expressions
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what is a key element of this interaction?
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what is reciprocity?
when each person responds to other and elicits response
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traditional views of childhood see baby taking what kind of role?
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however, recent research suggests they're more?
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who can initiate interactions?
both mother and child
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and appear to do so?
taking terms
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what did brazelton et al describe this interaction as?
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bc just like couple's dance each parter responds to the others' moves
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- interactional synchrony
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when are two people said to be synchronised?
when they carry out the same action simultaneously
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what's the long definition for interactional synchrony?
'the temporal co-ordination of micro-level social behaviour'
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when does it take place?
when mother and infants' actions and emotions mirror the other
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meltzoff and moore observed beginnings of this in infants as young as?
2weeks old
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an adult displayed one of how many facial expressions or distinct gestures?
one of 3 face / 3gestures
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child's response filmed and identified by?
independent observers
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association found between?
expression / gesture of adult and actions of babies
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believed this is important for development of?
mother-infant attachment
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how many mothers and infants did isabella et al observe?
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and assessed?
degree of synchrony
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as well as?
quality of mother-infant attachment
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what association did they find?
high levels of synchrony / better quality attachment
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:( hard to know what's happening with infants
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what have many studies on mothers / children shown same patterns of?
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but what is only being observed?
hand movements / changes in expression
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which makes it extremely difficult to be certain of what?
what's taking place from infant's perspective
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hard to establish if its conscious and?
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which means we cannot know what about behaviours for certain?
that they have special meaning
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:) controlled observations capture fine detail
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what is often happening for later examination in procedures?
filming from multiple angles
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what does this ensure about fine details about behaviour?
can be recorded and analysed
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furthermore, why is it good that babies don't know or care that they're being filmed?
doesn't change their behaviour
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however this is usually a big problem for which type of research?
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strenght of this line of research because means research has good?
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:( observations don't tell us purpose of synch/reciprocity?
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what did feldman point out about synchrony?
only describes behaviours that occur @ the same time
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why are they robust (veep? dan egan? r u quacking?) phenomena?
can be reliably observed
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but may not be particulary useful as does not tell us?
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however, there is some evidence to suggest these two things are helpful in development of what attachment?
mother-infant (shocker)
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as well as helpful in what?
stress responses / empathy / language / moral development
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- parent-infant attachment
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traditionally what had this bond been called?
mother-infant attachment
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which paret did schaffer and emerson find majority of babies became attached to first?
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at around how many months?
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and within a few weeks or months also formed what type of attachment to other family members (inc dad)?
secondary attachments
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what % of studied infants formed attachment with fathers by 18 months?
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how was this determined?
infants protested when father walked away
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which is a sign of?
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- the role of the father
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grossman carried out a longitudinal study looking at?
parents' behaviour and relationship to quality of children's attachments into their teens (boyhood (2014) is quacking)
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quality of attachment with which parent was related to adolescent attachment?
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what does this suggest about attachment to father?
less important
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however what about fathers was related to quality of adolescent attachments?
quality of fathers' play
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what does this suggest the fathers' role in attachment is more to do with?
play and stimulation
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and less to do with?
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- fathers as primary caregivers
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ev to suggest fathers take on what behaviours when being main caregiver?
behaviours more typical of mothers
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field filmed babies of what age?
4 months
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in what kind of interaction?
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with which three groups?
primary fathers / primary mothers / secondary fathers
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what was it found primary fathers spent more time doing than second?
smiling / imitating / holding them
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more like which other group?
primary caregiver mothers
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what does this suggest about fathers?
they can be the more nurturing attachment figure
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so what is the key to attahcment relationship rather than gender?
level of responsiveness
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:( inconsistent findings on fathers
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why is research into role of fathers in attachment confusing?
bc different researchers are asking different questions
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some are more interested in ^role^ as secondary and some are more concerned with them as ^primary^
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what do those trying to understand role thing of fathers?
behave diff 2 mothers and have distinct role
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but others think father can take on what?
maternal role
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this is problem bc psychs can't answer what simple question that may be asked?
'what is the role of the father'
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:( if distinct role, y aren't children w/o fathers different?
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whose study shows that children in single / same sex families dont develop any diff 2 2hetero parents?
maccallum and golombok
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what does this seem to suggest about father's role as secondary attachment?
not important
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:( why dont become primary attachments
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what is a social explanation for this?
traditional gender roles
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therefore fathers don't feel?
tjhat they should act like that
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although biologically what can account for this?
female hormones like oestrogen
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create high levels of nurturing and therefore women are?
biologically predisposed to being primary caregiver
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:( socially sensitive research, working mothers
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why is it socially sensitive to rsrch mother-infant interaction?
suggests children may be not reared right by certain practices
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Card 2


- reciprocity



Card 3


from birth, babies and caregivers spend time in what type of interaction?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what fraction of time do mothers typically pick up on and respond to infant alertness?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


from around how many months does this interaction tend to be increasingly frequent?


Preview of the front of card 5
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