attachment ; introduction

HideShow resource information
CAREGIVER-INFANT INTERACTIONS
FGDGDF
1 of 89
- reciprocity
dgdg
2 of 89
from birth, babies and caregivers spend time in what type of interaction?
intense and pleasurable
3 of 89
what fraction of time do mothers typically pick up on and respond to infant alertness?
2/3
4 of 89
from around how many months does this interaction tend to be increasingly frequent?
3
5 of 89
and involves close attention ot each others' which two features?
verbal signs / facial expressions
6 of 89
what is a key element of this interaction?
reciprocity
7 of 89
what is reciprocity?
when each person responds to other and elicits response
8 of 89
traditional views of childhood see baby taking what kind of role?
passive
9 of 89
however, recent research suggests they're more?
active
10 of 89
who can initiate interactions?
both mother and child
11 of 89
and appear to do so?
taking terms
12 of 89
what did brazelton et al describe this interaction as?
dance
13 of 89
why?
bc just like couple's dance each parter responds to the others' moves
14 of 89
- interactional synchrony
fdfgdg
15 of 89
when are two people said to be synchronised?
when they carry out the same action simultaneously
16 of 89
what's the long definition for interactional synchrony?
'the temporal co-ordination of micro-level social behaviour'
17 of 89
when does it take place?
when mother and infants' actions and emotions mirror the other
18 of 89
meltzoff and moore observed beginnings of this in infants as young as?
2weeks old
19 of 89
an adult displayed one of how many facial expressions or distinct gestures?
one of 3 face / 3gestures
20 of 89
child's response filmed and identified by?
independent observers
21 of 89
association found between?
expression / gesture of adult and actions of babies
22 of 89
believed this is important for development of?
mother-infant attachment
23 of 89
how many mothers and infants did isabella et al observe?
30
24 of 89
and assessed?
degree of synchrony
25 of 89
as well as?
quality of mother-infant attachment
26 of 89
what association did they find?
high levels of synchrony / better quality attachment
27 of 89
EVALUATION
DGD
28 of 89
:( hard to know what's happening with infants
dfgdfg
29 of 89
what have many studies on mothers / children shown same patterns of?
interaction
30 of 89
but what is only being observed?
hand movements / changes in expression
31 of 89
which makes it extremely difficult to be certain of what?
what's taking place from infant's perspective
32 of 89
hard to establish if its conscious and?
deliberate
33 of 89
which means we cannot know what about behaviours for certain?
that they have special meaning
34 of 89
:) controlled observations capture fine detail
dfggd
35 of 89
what is often happening for later examination in procedures?
filming from multiple angles
36 of 89
what does this ensure about fine details about behaviour?
can be recorded and analysed
37 of 89
furthermore, why is it good that babies don't know or care that they're being filmed?
doesn't change their behaviour
38 of 89
however this is usually a big problem for which type of research?
observational
39 of 89
strenght of this line of research because means research has good?
validity
40 of 89
:( observations don't tell us purpose of synch/reciprocity?
dfgdf
41 of 89
what did feldman point out about synchrony?
only describes behaviours that occur @ the same time
42 of 89
why are they robust (veep? dan egan? r u quacking?) phenomena?
can be reliably observed
43 of 89
but may not be particulary useful as does not tell us?
purpose
44 of 89
however, there is some evidence to suggest these two things are helpful in development of what attachment?
mother-infant (shocker)
45 of 89
as well as helpful in what?
stress responses / empathy / language / moral development
46 of 89
ATTACHMENT FIGURES
GDFGDG
47 of 89
- parent-infant attachment
dffgdfg
48 of 89
traditionally what had this bond been called?
mother-infant attachment
49 of 89
which paret did schaffer and emerson find majority of babies became attached to first?
mother
50 of 89
at around how many months?
seven
51 of 89
and within a few weeks or months also formed what type of attachment to other family members (inc dad)?
secondary attachments
52 of 89
what % of studied infants formed attachment with fathers by 18 months?
75%
53 of 89
how was this determined?
infants protested when father walked away
54 of 89
which is a sign of?
attachment
55 of 89
- the role of the father
dffgdg
56 of 89
grossman carried out a longitudinal study looking at?
parents' behaviour and relationship to quality of children's attachments into their teens (boyhood (2014) is quacking)
57 of 89
quality of attachment with which parent was related to adolescent attachment?
mother
58 of 89
what does this suggest about attachment to father?
less important
59 of 89
however what about fathers was related to quality of adolescent attachments?
quality of fathers' play
60 of 89
what does this suggest the fathers' role in attachment is more to do with?
play and stimulation
61 of 89
and less to do with?
nurturing
62 of 89
- fathers as primary caregivers
dfgdgd
63 of 89
ev to suggest fathers take on what behaviours when being main caregiver?
behaviours more typical of mothers
64 of 89
field filmed babies of what age?
4 months
65 of 89
in what kind of interaction?
face-to-face
66 of 89
with which three groups?
primary fathers / primary mothers / secondary fathers
67 of 89
what was it found primary fathers spent more time doing than second?
smiling / imitating / holding them
68 of 89
more like which other group?
primary caregiver mothers
69 of 89
what does this suggest about fathers?
they can be the more nurturing attachment figure
70 of 89
so what is the key to attahcment relationship rather than gender?
level of responsiveness
71 of 89
EVALUATION
DFDFG
72 of 89
:( inconsistent findings on fathers
skd
73 of 89
why is research into role of fathers in attachment confusing?
bc different researchers are asking different questions
74 of 89
why?
some are more interested in ^role^ as secondary and some are more concerned with them as ^primary^
75 of 89
what do those trying to understand role thing of fathers?
behave diff 2 mothers and have distinct role
76 of 89
but others think father can take on what?
maternal role
77 of 89
this is problem bc psychs can't answer what simple question that may be asked?
'what is the role of the father'
78 of 89
:( if distinct role, y aren't children w/o fathers different?
sdd
79 of 89
whose study shows that children in single / same sex families dont develop any diff 2 2hetero parents?
maccallum and golombok
80 of 89
what does this seem to suggest about father's role as secondary attachment?
not important
81 of 89
:( why dont become primary attachments
dgdg
82 of 89
what is a social explanation for this?
traditional gender roles
83 of 89
therefore fathers don't feel?
tjhat they should act like that
84 of 89
although biologically what can account for this?
female hormones like oestrogen
85 of 89
create high levels of nurturing and therefore women are?
biologically predisposed to being primary caregiver
86 of 89
EVALUATION EXTRA
DFGDG
87 of 89
:( socially sensitive research, working mothers
dfgd
88 of 89
why is it socially sensitive to rsrch mother-infant interaction?
suggests children may be not reared right by certain practices
89 of 89

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

- reciprocity

Back

dgdg

Card 3

Front

from birth, babies and caregivers spend time in what type of interaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what fraction of time do mothers typically pick up on and respond to infant alertness?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

from around how many months does this interaction tend to be increasingly frequent?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attachment resources »