attachment ; explanations ; bowlby's theory

1 of 80
why did he reject the learning theory of attachment?
bc he argued the same thing about just attaching to whoever feeds them and how that doesn't happen
2 of 80
instead which two people's work did bowlby look @?
lorenz and halow
3 of 80
and proposed what kind of explanation?
4 of 80
that attachment was innate system that gave waht?
survival advantage
5 of 80
why did he suggest imprinting and attachment evolved?
bc ensure young stay close to caregivers and this protekhs them from hazards
6 of 80
- monotropy
7 of 80
why is it described a monotropic theoyr?
bc he placed gr8 emph. on child's attachment to one particular caregiver (hence mono)
8 of 80
and believed what about child's attachment to this one caregiver?
different and more imprtant than others
9 of 80
what did he call this person?
the 'mother'
10 of 80
but what is it clear it didn't need to be?
biological mother
11 of 80
what did bowlby believe about time spent w/ mother-figure?
more the better
12 of 80
what two laws did he put fwd to clarify this?
law of continuity / law of accumulated separation
13 of 80
what did the law of continuity state?
more constant and predictable a child's care, the better quality of attachment
14 of 80
what did law of accumulated separation state?
effects of every separation from mother add up 'and the safest dose therefore is a zero dose'
15 of 80
- social releasers and the critical period
16 of 80
what did bowlby suggest babies are born with?
innate 'cute' behaviours e.g smiling / cooing
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what did he call these?
social releasers
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bc purpose is to activate adult attachment system
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what did bowlby recognise about attachment process?
reciprocal process
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what predisposition do both mothers and babies have?
innate predisp. to become attached
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and what triggers that response in caregivers?
social releasers
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how long was bowlby's proposed critical period?
around two years
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but what kind of period did bowlby view this more as?
sensitive period
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when is child maximally sensitive?
25 of 80
what happens if attachmnet not formed at this time?
much harder to form attachment later
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- internal working model
27 of 80
what did bowlby propose child form of relationship with primary care giver?
mental representation
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what is this called?
internal working model
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bc serves as moder for what relationships are like
30 of 80
therefore has powerful effect on what?
nature of child's future relationships
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what will chid whose 1st exp is of loving rel8ionship expect of future relationships and bring to them?
all loving and reliable
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what importantly does internal working model affect child's ability to do?
be parent themselves
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what do people tend to base their parenting behavioir on?
their own exp of being parented
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what does this explain about children from dysf. families?
that they have them themselves
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36 of 80
:( mixed evidence for monotropy
37 of 80
what did bowlby believe about first attachment?
to primary caregiver and different from later attachments
38 of 80
what could child only form after this was est?
multiple attachments
39 of 80
who supports this theory?
schaffer and emerson
40 of 80
who found what about most babeies?
they did attach to one person 1st
41 of 80
however also found sig minority that could do what?
form multiple attachments at same time
42 of 80
what is also unclear about this 1st attachment?
whether it's unique
43 of 80
what do studies of attachment to mother and father tend to show?
that attachment to mother is more important in predicting later behaviour
44 of 80
however what could this simply mean about primary attachment?
stronger than others
45 of 80
not neccessarily that it's differet in?
46 of 80
:) supp for social releasers
47 of 80
clear evidence to suggest cute infant behavoirs are intended to do what?
initiate social interaction
48 of 80
and that doing so is?
important to baby
49 of 80
when did brazleton et al obs mothers and babies?
in interactions
50 of 80
and reported existence of?
interactional synchrony
51 of 80
then extended study from observation to?
52 of 80
what were primary attachment figures instructed to do?
ignore babies signals
53 of 80
in bowlby's terms they were ignoring what?
social releasers
54 of 80
what did babies show initially?
55 of 80
but when continiued ignore how did some babies respond?
cyrling up and lying motionless
56 of 80
what does fact children responded so strongly support?
bowlby's ideas about sognificance of infant social behaviour in eliciting caregiving
57 of 80
:) supp for internal working models
58 of 80
why is this idea testable?
because predicts patterns of attachement will be passed on from generation
59 of 80
how many mothers did bailey et al test?
60 of 80
with babies of how old?
61 of 80
and assessed them on what?
quality of attachment to won mothers
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using what procedure?
standard interview
63 of 80
what did rsrchers also assess by observation?
attachment of babies to mothers
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what was fd that mothers w/ poor attachmetns to own parents were more likely to have?
children classified poor acc 2 obs
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what idea does this support about internal working model?
being passed through families
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67 of 80
:( monotroopy socially sensitive
68 of 80
controversial bc has major implications on?
lifestyle choices mothers make w/ young kids
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what does law of accummulated separation state about susbtantial time apart?
risks poor quality attachment that'll disadvantage child later
70 of 80
what have feminists like burman pointed out this places on mothers?
burden of responsibility
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setting them up to take the blame for what?
anything that goes wrong in rest of child's life
72 of 80
also pushes mother into particular lifestyle choices like?
not returning to work when child born
73 of 80
was this bowlby;s intention?
74 of 80
what did he think he was doing by emph. mothers' role?
boosting status of mother
75 of 80
:( temperament may be as important as attachment
76 of 80
what is temperament?
child's genetically imfluenced personality
77 of 80
what does kagan suggest happens to some babies as result of genetic makeup?
some more anxious than othera dn some more sociable
78 of 80
what may these temperamental differences explain lather better than attachment experiences?
social behavoir
79 of 80
what do these researchers often accuse bowlby of?
over-emphasising importance of child's early expoeriences and quality of their attachment
80 of 80

Other cards in this set

Card 2


why did he reject the learning theory of attachment?


bc he argued the same thing about just attaching to whoever feeds them and how that doesn't happen

Card 3


instead which two people's work did bowlby look @?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


and proposed what kind of explanation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


that attachment was innate system that gave waht?


Preview of the front of card 5
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